Abstract

Pinhole imagery is discussed by using modulation transfer functions. The optimum condition between the size of the pinhole and the focus position is understood as the balance of the diffraction caused by the aperture size and the geometrical-optical aberration given by the aperture size and focus position. Field characteristics, chromatic characteristics and relations with receptor systems are discussed easily in the spatial-frequency domain.

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  1. H. Gernsheim, The History of Photography (Oxford University Press, New York, 1955), p. 1.
  2. J. Petzval, Wien Ber. XXVI, 33 (1857); Phil. Mag. XVII, 1 (1859).
  3. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. XXXI, 87 (1891); Sci. Paper Vol. I (Dover Publications, New York, 1965), p. 513.
  4. E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. Z. 90B, 47 (1950).
  5. For example, A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932), p. 124.
  6. For example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Company, New York, 1934), 3rd ed., p. 270.
  7. For example, J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 204.
  8. For example, R. Kingslake, lenses in Photography (A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., New York, 1963), Rev. ed., p. 60.
  9. For example, J. Flügge, Das Photographische Objektiv (Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1955), p. 8.
  10. W. Merte, R. Richter, and M. V. Rohr, Das Photographische Objektiv (Verlag von Julius Springer, Wien, 1932), p. 17.
  11. A. H. Gallas, C. A. Gilbert, and A. B. Hitterdal, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 74, 321 (1965). P. A. Newman and V. E. Rible, Appl. Opt. 5, 1225 (1966).
  12. H. H. Hopkins, Prec. Phys. Soc. (London) A23l, 91 (1955).
  13. W. H. Steel, Opt. Acta 3, 65 (1956).
  14. K. Sayanagi, Oyo Butsuri 25, 193 (1956).
  15. K. Strehl, Z. Instrumentenk. 15, 362 (1895).
  16. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 440 and 441.
  17. H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberration (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 16.
  18. Assuming that the spread function is the uniform disk.
  19. H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A231, 91 (1955).
  20. H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).
  21. H. J. Zweig, G. C. Higgins, and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 926 (1958).
  22. R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1159 (1961).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 440 and 441.

Flügge, J.

For example, J. Flügge, Das Photographische Objektiv (Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1955), p. 8.

Gallas, A. H.

A. H. Gallas, C. A. Gilbert, and A. B. Hitterdal, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 74, 321 (1965). P. A. Newman and V. E. Rible, Appl. Opt. 5, 1225 (1966).

Gernsheim, H.

H. Gernsheim, The History of Photography (Oxford University Press, New York, 1955), p. 1.

Gilbert, C. A.

A. H. Gallas, C. A. Gilbert, and A. B. Hitterdal, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 74, 321 (1965). P. A. Newman and V. E. Rible, Appl. Opt. 5, 1225 (1966).

Hardy, A. C.

For example, A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932), p. 124.

Higgins, G. C.

H. J. Zweig, G. C. Higgins, and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 926 (1958).

Hitterdal, A. B.

A. H. Gallas, C. A. Gilbert, and A. B. Hitterdal, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 74, 321 (1965). P. A. Newman and V. E. Rible, Appl. Opt. 5, 1225 (1966).

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, Prec. Phys. Soc. (London) A23l, 91 (1955).

H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberration (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 16.

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A231, 91 (1955).

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1159 (1961).

Kingslake, R.

For example, R. Kingslake, lenses in Photography (A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., New York, 1963), Rev. ed., p. 60.

MacAdam, D. L.

H. J. Zweig, G. C. Higgins, and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 926 (1958).

Merte, W.

W. Merte, R. Richter, and M. V. Rohr, Das Photographische Objektiv (Verlag von Julius Springer, Wien, 1932), p. 17.

Perrin, F. H.

For example, A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932), p. 124.

Petzval, J.

J. Petzval, Wien Ber. XXVI, 33 (1857); Phil. Mag. XVII, 1 (1859).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. XXXI, 87 (1891); Sci. Paper Vol. I (Dover Publications, New York, 1965), p. 513.

Richter, R.

W. Merte, R. Richter, and M. V. Rohr, Das Photographische Objektiv (Verlag von Julius Springer, Wien, 1932), p. 17.

Rohr, M. V.

W. Merte, R. Richter, and M. V. Rohr, Das Photographische Objektiv (Verlag von Julius Springer, Wien, 1932), p. 17.

Sayanagi, K.

K. Sayanagi, Oyo Butsuri 25, 193 (1956).

Selwyn, E. W. H.

E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. Z. 90B, 47 (1950).

Steel, W. H.

W. H. Steel, Opt. Acta 3, 65 (1956).

Stone, J. M.

For example, J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 204.

Strehl, K.

K. Strehl, Z. Instrumentenk. 15, 362 (1895).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 440 and 441.

Wood, R. W.

For example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Company, New York, 1934), 3rd ed., p. 270.

Zweig, H. J.

H. J. Zweig, G. C. Higgins, and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 926 (1958).

Other

H. Gernsheim, The History of Photography (Oxford University Press, New York, 1955), p. 1.

J. Petzval, Wien Ber. XXVI, 33 (1857); Phil. Mag. XVII, 1 (1859).

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. XXXI, 87 (1891); Sci. Paper Vol. I (Dover Publications, New York, 1965), p. 513.

E. W. H. Selwyn, Phot. Z. 90B, 47 (1950).

For example, A. C. Hardy and F. H. Perrin, The Principles of Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1932), p. 124.

For example, R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan Company, New York, 1934), 3rd ed., p. 270.

For example, J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1963), p. 204.

For example, R. Kingslake, lenses in Photography (A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., New York, 1963), Rev. ed., p. 60.

For example, J. Flügge, Das Photographische Objektiv (Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1955), p. 8.

W. Merte, R. Richter, and M. V. Rohr, Das Photographische Objektiv (Verlag von Julius Springer, Wien, 1932), p. 17.

A. H. Gallas, C. A. Gilbert, and A. B. Hitterdal, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 74, 321 (1965). P. A. Newman and V. E. Rible, Appl. Opt. 5, 1225 (1966).

H. H. Hopkins, Prec. Phys. Soc. (London) A23l, 91 (1955).

W. H. Steel, Opt. Acta 3, 65 (1956).

K. Sayanagi, Oyo Butsuri 25, 193 (1956).

K. Strehl, Z. Instrumentenk. 15, 362 (1895).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1965), 3rd ed., p. 440 and 441.

H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberration (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1950), p. 16.

Assuming that the spread function is the uniform disk.

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A231, 91 (1955).

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).

H. J. Zweig, G. C. Higgins, and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 926 (1958).

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1159 (1961).

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