Abstract

The contrast sensitivity of the human eye for sinusoidal illuminance changes in space and time, obtained by means of traveling-wave stimuli, was measured as a function of spatial and temporal frequency for white light. The average retinal illuminance was varied between 0.85 and 850 trolands. The threshold modulation for perception of a moving grating is generally higher than that for detection of brightness changes, in space and/or time, that give rise to flicker phenomena. Flicker-fusion characteristics, as determined from the thresholds for the flicker phenomenon, are found to lose their band-pass-filter resemblance for spatial frequencies of more than 5 cycles per degree of visual angle. The thresholds at flicker fusion for spatial- and temporal-frequency combinations in which not both frequencies are very low, appear to be proportional to the inverse of the square root of mean retinal illuminance, in the investigated range. This suggests a photon-noise-dependent threshold mechanism which is operative in a wider illuminance range than that found with contrast-sensitivity measurements for periodic illuminance variations only in space or only in time.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1115 (1960).
  2. O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956). Schade, in an attempt to eliminate the effects of limited stimulus size, determined the contrast-sensitivity function for many luminances with traveling waves that had a single temporal frequency of approx. 1 Hz.
  3. J. J. De Palma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).
  4. F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).
  5. H de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).
  6. J. J. Denier van der Gon, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1959).
  7. L. H. van der Tweel, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).
  8. H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).
  9. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 538A (1966)/57, 421 (1967).
  10. J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).
  11. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).
  12. J. F. Schouten, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Models of the Perception of Speech and Visual Form, Boston, November 1964. (Dept. of the Air Force, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass.)
  13. F. Veringa, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1961).
  14. H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
  15. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
  16. P. Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35 (1920).
  17. B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), B121, 376 (1936).
  18. Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique (Editions Rev. Opt., Paris, 1956), Vol. 2, p. 98.
  19. M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

Bouman, M. A.

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), B121, 376 (1936).

de Lange, H.

H de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

De Palma, J. J.

J. J. De Palma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

Grand, Y. Le

Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique (Editions Rev. Opt., Paris, 1956), Vol. 2, p. 98.

Hilz, R.

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

Kelly, D. H.

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1115 (1960).

Lowry, E. M.

J. J. De Palma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 538A (1966)/57, 421 (1967).

Reeves, P.

P. Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35 (1920).

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

Rose, A.

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

Schade, O. H.

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956). Schade, in an attempt to eliminate the effects of limited stimulus size, determined the contrast-sensitivity function for many luminances with traveling waves that had a single temporal frequency of approx. 1 Hz.

Schober, H. A. W.

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

Schouten, J. F.

J. F. Schouten, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Models of the Perception of Speech and Visual Form, Boston, November 1964. (Dept. of the Air Force, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass.)

van der Gon, J. J. Denier

J. J. Denier van der Gon, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1959).

van der Tweel, L. H.

L. H. van der Tweel, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).

van Nes, F. L.

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

Veringa, F.

F. Veringa, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1961).

Vos, J. J.

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

Walraven, P. L.

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

Other (19)

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1115 (1960).

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956). Schade, in an attempt to eliminate the effects of limited stimulus size, determined the contrast-sensitivity function for many luminances with traveling waves that had a single temporal frequency of approx. 1 Hz.

J. J. De Palma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

H de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

J. J. Denier van der Gon, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1959).

L. H. van der Tweel, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 89, 829 (1961).

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 538A (1966)/57, 421 (1967).

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1628 (1966).

J. F. Schouten, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Models of the Perception of Speech and Visual Form, Boston, November 1964. (Dept. of the Air Force, Hanscom Field, Bedford, Mass.)

F. Veringa, thesis, Univ. Amsterdam (Amsterdam, 1961).

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

P. Reeves, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 4, 35 (1920).

B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), B121, 376 (1936).

Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique (Editions Rev. Opt., Paris, 1956), Vol. 2, p. 98.

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos, and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.