Abstract

Low-intensity reciprocity failure (LIRF) of a silver bromide emulsion was drastically reduced, but not eliminated, by the addition of a halogen acceptor, such as acetone semicarbazone, before coating. The remaining failure has a slope of approximately minus unity on an isodensity plot of log intensity vs log intensity × time. This is interpreted as exemplifying two types of LIRF, an intergranular type stopped by a sufficient amount of halogen acceptor, and an intragranular type caused by the thermal instability of a photolytically produced silver atom. A LIRF curve was also obtained in terms of the number of absorbed photons necessary to make a grain developable. These data suggest that considerable recombination occurs before nucleation of the latent image. The quantum efficiency of formation of print-out silver is 0.2 silver atom per absorbed photon. This value indicates that growth of the latent image after nucleation is efficient.

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  1. S. O. Rawling and J. W. Glassett, Phot. J. 66, 495 (1926).
  2. S. E. Sheppard and E. P. Wightman, in Ber. VIII Internat. Kongr. Phot., Dresden, 1931, J. Eggert and A. von Biehler, Eds. (J. Barth, Leipzig, 1932), p. 157.
  3. T. Price, Phot. J. 71, 59 (1931).
  4. W. F. Berg, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 783 (1948).
  5. R. W. Swenson, F. G. Forsgard, and R. V. Dyba, Phot. Sci. Tech. (2) 3, 162 (1956).
  6. T. H. James, W. Vanselow, and R. F. Quirk, Phot. Sci. Eng. 5, 216 (1961).
  7. H. E. Spencer, L. E. Brady, and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 492 (1964); H. E. Spencer and R. E. Atwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 498 (1964); 56, 1095 (1966).
  8. W. G. Lowe, J. E. Jones, and H. E. Roberts, in Fundamental Mechanisms of Photographic Sensitivity, Ed. by J. W. Mitchell (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1951), p. 112.
  9. J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 3 (1950).
  10. E. Katz, J. Chem. Phys. 17, 1132 (1949).
  11. P. V. Meiaklyar, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 85, 1255 (1952).
  12. C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).
  13. J. F. Hamilton and B. E. Bayer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55 528 (1965). B. E. Bayer and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 439 (1965).
  14. C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., New York, 1966), 3rd ed., Ch. 5.

Bayer, B. E.

J. F. Hamilton and B. E. Bayer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55 528 (1965). B. E. Bayer and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 439 (1965).

Berg, W. F.

W. F. Berg, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 783 (1948).

Brady, L. E.

H. E. Spencer, L. E. Brady, and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 492 (1964); H. E. Spencer and R. E. Atwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 498 (1964); 56, 1095 (1966).

Dyba, R. V.

R. W. Swenson, F. G. Forsgard, and R. V. Dyba, Phot. Sci. Tech. (2) 3, 162 (1956).

Forsgard, F. G.

R. W. Swenson, F. G. Forsgard, and R. V. Dyba, Phot. Sci. Tech. (2) 3, 162 (1956).

Glassett, J. W.

S. O. Rawling and J. W. Glassett, Phot. J. 66, 495 (1926).

Hamilton, J. F.

J. F. Hamilton and B. E. Bayer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55 528 (1965). B. E. Bayer and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 439 (1965).

H. E. Spencer, L. E. Brady, and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 492 (1964); H. E. Spencer and R. E. Atwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 498 (1964); 56, 1095 (1966).

Hatchard, C. G.

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

James, T. H.

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, and R. F. Quirk, Phot. Sci. Eng. 5, 216 (1961).

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., New York, 1966), 3rd ed., Ch. 5.

Jones, J. E.

W. G. Lowe, J. E. Jones, and H. E. Roberts, in Fundamental Mechanisms of Photographic Sensitivity, Ed. by J. W. Mitchell (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1951), p. 112.

Katz, E.

E. Katz, J. Chem. Phys. 17, 1132 (1949).

Lowe, W. G.

W. G. Lowe, J. E. Jones, and H. E. Roberts, in Fundamental Mechanisms of Photographic Sensitivity, Ed. by J. W. Mitchell (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1951), p. 112.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., New York, 1966), 3rd ed., Ch. 5.

Meiaklyar, P. V.

P. V. Meiaklyar, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 85, 1255 (1952).

Parker, C. A.

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

Price, T.

T. Price, Phot. J. 71, 59 (1931).

Quirk, R. F.

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, and R. F. Quirk, Phot. Sci. Eng. 5, 216 (1961).

Rawling, S. O.

S. O. Rawling and J. W. Glassett, Phot. J. 66, 495 (1926).

Roberts, H. E.

W. G. Lowe, J. E. Jones, and H. E. Roberts, in Fundamental Mechanisms of Photographic Sensitivity, Ed. by J. W. Mitchell (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1951), p. 112.

Sheppard, S. E.

S. E. Sheppard and E. P. Wightman, in Ber. VIII Internat. Kongr. Phot., Dresden, 1931, J. Eggert and A. von Biehler, Eds. (J. Barth, Leipzig, 1932), p. 157.

Spencer, H. E.

H. E. Spencer, L. E. Brady, and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 492 (1964); H. E. Spencer and R. E. Atwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 498 (1964); 56, 1095 (1966).

Swenson, R. W.

R. W. Swenson, F. G. Forsgard, and R. V. Dyba, Phot. Sci. Tech. (2) 3, 162 (1956).

Vanselow, W.

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, and R. F. Quirk, Phot. Sci. Eng. 5, 216 (1961).

Webb, J. H.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 3 (1950).

Wightman, E. P.

S. E. Sheppard and E. P. Wightman, in Ber. VIII Internat. Kongr. Phot., Dresden, 1931, J. Eggert and A. von Biehler, Eds. (J. Barth, Leipzig, 1932), p. 157.

Other

S. O. Rawling and J. W. Glassett, Phot. J. 66, 495 (1926).

S. E. Sheppard and E. P. Wightman, in Ber. VIII Internat. Kongr. Phot., Dresden, 1931, J. Eggert and A. von Biehler, Eds. (J. Barth, Leipzig, 1932), p. 157.

T. Price, Phot. J. 71, 59 (1931).

W. F. Berg, Trans. Faraday Soc. 44, 783 (1948).

R. W. Swenson, F. G. Forsgard, and R. V. Dyba, Phot. Sci. Tech. (2) 3, 162 (1956).

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, and R. F. Quirk, Phot. Sci. Eng. 5, 216 (1961).

H. E. Spencer, L. E. Brady, and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 492 (1964); H. E. Spencer and R. E. Atwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 498 (1964); 56, 1095 (1966).

W. G. Lowe, J. E. Jones, and H. E. Roberts, in Fundamental Mechanisms of Photographic Sensitivity, Ed. by J. W. Mitchell (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1951), p. 112.

J. H. Webb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 3 (1950).

E. Katz, J. Chem. Phys. 17, 1132 (1949).

P. V. Meiaklyar, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR 85, 1255 (1952).

C. G. Hatchard and C. A. Parker, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A235, 518 (1956).

J. F. Hamilton and B. E. Bayer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55 528 (1965). B. E. Bayer and J. F. Hamilton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 439 (1965).

C. E. K. Mees and T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan Co., New York, 1966), 3rd ed., Ch. 5.

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