Abstract

Contrast sensitivity for square-wave gratings of spatial frequencies between 0.44 and 33.2 cycles/deg was determined for exposure durations between 11 and 500 msec. The space-average luminance of the targets was kept constant at 10 mL, regardless of contrast, and equal to that of the pre- and post-exposure fields, which contained a cross-hair reticle to help maintain accommodation and fixation. At the longest exposure duration (500 msec) the contrast sensitivity function exhibited both the high- and the low-frequency declines described by previous investigators. At the briefest exposure duration tested (11 msec), the low-frequency decline of contrast sensitivity was virtually absent. Log contrast sensitivity improves with increasing exposure duration, but more for high-frequency than for low-frequency gratings. These results are compatible with the assumption that there is a time delay in the occurrence of inhibitory interactions in the retina.

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  1. H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).
  2. F. Ratliff, Mack bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), Part I, Ch. 3, 4.
  3. E. M. Lowry and J. J. DePalma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 740 (1961).
  4. O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 81 (1966).
  5. M. Davidson and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 580A (1964).
  6. O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).
  7. J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).
  8. F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 581A (1964).
  9. D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154 (1965).
  10. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
  11. A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).
  12. J. W. Coltman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468 (1954).
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  14. G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, Brit. J. Math. Stat. Psych. 18, 1 (1965).
  15. The standard error of the mean of six determinations is 10% (0.04 log units).
  16. J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).
  17. G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).
  18. H. B. Barlow, R. F. Hugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 13 7, 339 (1957).
  19. H. B. Barlow and W. R. Levick, J. Physiol. 178, 477 (1965).
  20. U. K. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).
  21. J. W. Coltman and A. E. Anderson, Proc. IRE 48, 858 (May 1960).

Anderson, A. E.

J. W. Coltman and A. E. Anderson, Proc. IRE 48, 858 (May 1960).

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, R. F. Hugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 13 7, 339 (1957).

H. B. Barlow and W. R. Levick, J. Physiol. 178, 477 (1965).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 81 (1966).

Campbell, F. W.

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 581A (1964).

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

Coltman, J. W.

J. W. Coltman and A. E. Anderson, Proc. IRE 48, 858 (May 1960).

J. W. Coltman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468 (1954).

Cornsweet, T. N.

M. Davidson and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 580A (1964).

Davidson, M.

M. Davidson and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 580A (1964).

deLange, H.

H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

DePalma, J. J.

E. M. Lowry and J. J. DePalma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 740 (1961).

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

Green, D. G.

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

HiLz, R.

H. A. W. Schober and R. HiLz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1081 (1965).

Hugh, R. F.

H. B. Barlow, R. F. Hugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 13 7, 339 (1957).

Keesey, U. K.

U. K. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).

Kuffler, S. W.

H. B. Barlow, R. F. Hugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 13 7, 339 (1957).

Levick, W. R.

H. B. Barlow and W. R. Levick, J. Physiol. 178, 477 (1965).

Levitt, H.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, Brit. J. Math. Stat. Psych. 18, 1 (1965).

Lowry, E. M.

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

E. M. Lowry and J. J. DePalma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 740 (1961).

Patel, A. S.

A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, Mack bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), Part I, Ch. 3, 4.

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 581A (1964).

Schade, O. H.

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

Schober, H. A. W.

H. A. W. Schober and R. HiLz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1081 (1965).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

Wetherill, G. B.

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, Brit. J. Math. Stat. Psych. 18, 1 (1965).

Other (21)

H. deLange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 777 (1958).

F. Ratliff, Mack bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), Part I, Ch. 3, 4.

E. M. Lowry and J. J. DePalma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 740 (1961).

O. Bryngdahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 81 (1966).

M. Davidson and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 580A (1964).

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 (1962).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 581A (1964).

D. G. Green and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1154 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).

J. W. Coltman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468 (1954).

H. A. W. Schober and R. HiLz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1081 (1965).

G. B. Wetherill and H. Levitt, Brit. J. Math. Stat. Psych. 18, 1 (1965).

The standard error of the mean of six determinations is 10% (0.04 log units).

J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1141 (1966).

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

H. B. Barlow, R. F. Hugh, and S. W. Kuffler, J. Physiol. 13 7, 339 (1957).

H. B. Barlow and W. R. Levick, J. Physiol. 178, 477 (1965).

U. K. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 769 (1960).

J. W. Coltman and A. E. Anderson, Proc. IRE 48, 858 (May 1960).

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