Abstract

The disagreement between physical and psychophysical estimates of human optical performance is discussed. Recent measurements of the eye’s modulation transfer functions in white light for several pupil sizes are used to compare the eye with an ideal optical system in terms of normalized modulation transfer functions, point image profiles, and Strehl ratios. Several simple fundal-image profiles are derived from the measured modulation transfer functions, and the importance of these profiles to psychophysical measurements is discussed. Glare is considered as the extension of point spread functions to large angles; experimental measurements are compared with theories for the special case of an annular target.

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  6. J. K. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1046 (1962).
  7. G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, 5. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).
  8. R. Röhler, Vision Res. 2, 391 (1962).
  9. G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 86 (1963).
  10. K. Tansley, Vision in Vertebrates (Science Paperbacks, London, 1965), p. 107.
  11. F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1966), Ch. 4.
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  13. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
  14. F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).
  15. Lord Rayleigh, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. (London) Pt. 1, 474 (1903).
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  17. Y. LeGrand, Optique Physiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3, p. 52.
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  21. G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 333 (1965).
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  28. R. W. Gubisch, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 18, 366 (1966).
  29. G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881 (1965).
  30. V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).
  31. E. L, O'Neill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 258 (1956).
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  41. P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 444 (1943).
  42. F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 151, 285 (1960).
  43. L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman and Sons, London, 1954), Vol. 2, p. 230.
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Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend., Paris 250, 2757 (1960).

Berger, C.

C. Berger and F. Buchthal, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 78, 197 (1938).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).

Buchthal, F.

C. Berger and F. Buchthal, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 78, 197 (1938).

Bush, W. R.

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 151, 285 (1960).

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, 5. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb, Am. J. Physiol. 36, 335 (1915).

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303 (1965).

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend., Paris 250, 2757 (1960).

Enoch, J. M.

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1955).

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 333 (1965).

Glezer, V. D.

V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

R. W. Gubisch, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 18, 366 (1966).

W. A. H. Rushton and R. W. Gubisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 104 (1966).

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge, J. Physiol. (London) 57, 52 (1922).

Heinemann, E. G.

E. G. Heinemann, J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 389 (1961).

Helmholtz, H.

H. Helmholtz, Popular Scientific Lectures edited by M. Kline (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1962), p. 116.

H. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics, translation edited by J. P. C. Southall (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 36.

Higgins, G. C.

R. L. Lamberts, G. C. Higgins, and R. N. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 487 (1958).

Holladay, L. L.

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 271 (1926).

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927).

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 70B, B449 (1957).

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. 26, 145 (1947); H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. (London) 232B, 519 (1947); F. W. Campbell, Optica Acta 4, 157 (1957).

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 934 (1958).

Joynson, R. B.

R. B. Joynson, L. J. Newson, and D. S. May, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 209 (1965).

Krauskopf, J. K.

J. K. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1046 (1962).

Lamberts, R. L.

R. L. Lamberts, G. C. Higgins, and R. N. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 487 (1958).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Optique Physiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3, p. 52.

Y. LeGrand, Rev. Opt. 16, 201, 241 (1937).

Leibowitz, H.

H. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 416 (1952).

Linfoot, E. H.

E. H. Linfoot, Fourier Aletiods in Optical Image Evaluation (Focal Press, London and New York, 1964), p. 82.

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).

Martin, L. C.

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman and Sons, London, 1954), Vol. 2, p. 230.

May, D. S.

R. B. Joynson, L. J. Newson, and D. S. May, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 209 (1965).

Moon, P.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 444 (1943).

Newson, L. J.

R. B. Joynson, L. J. Newson, and D. S. May, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 209 (1965).

O’Neill, E. L.

E. L, O'Neill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 258 (1956).

Picht, J.

J. Picht, Optik 15, 83 (1958).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1966), Ch. 4.

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. (London) Pt. 1, 474 (1903).

Röhler, R.

R. Röhler, Vision Res. 2, 391 (1962).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and R. W. Gubisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 104 (1966).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 444 (1943).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B104, 322 (1929).

Strehl, K.

K. Strehl, Z. Instrumentenk. 22, 213 (1902).

Tansley, K.

K. Tansley, Vision in Vertebrates (Science Paperbacks, London, 1965), p. 107.

Teller, D. Y.

T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303 (1965).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, On Mechanisms of Glare, thesis, Utrecht (1963).

Westheimer, G.

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 151, 285 (1960).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 86 (1963).

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, 5. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881 (1965).

Wolfe, R. N.

R. L. Lamberts, G. C. Higgins, and R. N. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 487 (1958).

Other (44)

H. Helmholtz, Handbook of Physiological Optics, translation edited by J. P. C. Southall (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 2, p. 36.

P. W. Cobb, Am. J. Physiol. 36, 335 (1915).

C. Berger and F. Buchthal, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 78, 197 (1938).

H. Leibowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 416 (1952).

F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1955).

J. K. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1046 (1962).

G. Westheimer and F. W. Campbell, 5. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1040 (1962).

R. Röhler, Vision Res. 2, 391 (1962).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 86 (1963).

K. Tansley, Vision in Vertebrates (Science Paperbacks, London, 1965), p. 107.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands (Holden-Day, San Francisco, 1966), Ch. 4.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend., Paris 250, 2757 (1960).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

F. W. Campbell and R. W. Gubisch, J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

Lord Rayleigh, J. Roy. Microscop. Soc. (London) Pt. 1, 474 (1903).

H. Hartridge, J. Physiol. (London) 57, 52 (1922).

Y. LeGrand, Optique Physiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3, p. 52.

J. Picht, Optik 15, 83 (1958).

E. H. Linfoot, Fourier Aletiods in Optical Image Evaluation (Focal Press, London and New York, 1964), p. 82.

R. C. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 934 (1958).

G. A. Fry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 333 (1965).

A. Ivanoff, Rev. Opt. 26, 145 (1947); H. Hartridge, Phil. Trans. (London) 232B, 519 (1947); F. W. Campbell, Optica Acta 4, 157 (1957).

K. Strehl, Z. Instrumentenk. 22, 213 (1902).

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 70B, B449 (1957).

A. Maréchal, Rev. Opt. 26, 257 (1947).

R. L. Lamberts, G. C. Higgins, and R. N. Wolfe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 487 (1958).

R. B. Joynson, L. J. Newson, and D. S. May, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 209 (1965).

R. W. Gubisch, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 18, 366 (1966).

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881 (1965).

V. D. Glezer, Vision Res. 5, 497 (1965).

E. L, O'Neill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 258 (1956).

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 12, 271 (1926).

L. L. Holladay, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1 (1927).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B104, 322 (1929).

Y. LeGrand, Rev. Opt. 16, 201, 241 (1937).

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).

J. J. Vos, On Mechanisms of Glare, thesis, Utrecht (1963).

E. G. Heinemann, J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 389 (1961).

T. N. Cornsweet and D. Y. Teller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1303 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton and R. W. Gubisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 104 (1966).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 444 (1943).

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 151, 285 (1960).

L. C. Martin, Technical Optics (Pitman and Sons, London, 1954), Vol. 2, p. 230.

H. Helmholtz, Popular Scientific Lectures edited by M. Kline (Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1962), p. 116.

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