Abstract

The contrast sensitivity of the human eye for sinusoidal illuminance changes was measured as a function of spatial frequency, for monochromatic light with wavelengths of 450, 525, and 650 nm. At each wavelength, data were obtained for a number of illuminance levels. All observations were taken at equal accommodation, and corrected for chromatic aberration. If the wavelength-dependent effects of diffraction on the modulation transfer are taken into account, no difference is found between the photopic contrast-sensitivity functions for red, green, or blue. For mean retinal illuminances <i>B</i><sub>0</sub> smaller than 300 td, threshold modulation <i>M</i> at a given frequency is found to increase in proportion to <i>B</i><sub>0</sub><sup>-½</sup> (de Vries—Rose law). For <i>B</i><sub>0</sub> greater than 300 td <i>M</i> remains a constant fraction of it (Weber—Fechner law). After separation of the optical modulation transfer of the eye media from the measured psychophysical data, the remaining function can be considered as composed of a neural and a light-diffusion transfer function. The latter can be compared with the analytic transfer function of photographic film.

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  1. P. M. Duffieux, L'intégrale de Fourier et ses Applications à l'Optique (chez l'auteur, Rennes, 1946).
  2. Otto H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).
  3. A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).
  4. Yves Le Grand, Optique pliysiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3.
  5. H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
  6. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
  7. F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 145, 579 (1959).
  8. H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).
  9. J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell, "The Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination" (symposium at Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., Jan. 1964).
  10. A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).
  11. O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 12, 1 (1965).
  12. O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 13, 55 (1966).
  13. G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 152, 67 (1960).
  14. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).
  15. The technique involves the visual equalizing of an incoherent grating with a coherent one of the same spatial frequency. The modulation of the first is attenuated by the eye optics, whereas the modulation of the other is not.
  16. Otto H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 653 (1948).
  17. S. L. Polyak, The Vertebrate Visual System (Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1957).

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 12, 1 (1965).

O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 13, 55 (1966).

Campbell, F. W.

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell, "The Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination" (symposium at Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., Jan. 1964).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 145, 579 (1959).

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

Duffieux, P. M.

P. M. Duffieux, L'intégrale de Fourier et ses Applications à l'Optique (chez l'auteur, Rennes, 1946).

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

Grand, Yves Le

Yves Le Grand, Optique pliysiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3.

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

Hilz, R.

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

Patel, A. S.

A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).

Polyak, S. L.

S. L. Polyak, The Vertebrate Visual System (Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1957).

Robson, J. G.

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell, "The Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination" (symposium at Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., Jan. 1964).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 145, 579 (1959).

Rose, A.

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

Schade, Otto H.

Otto H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 653 (1948).

Otto H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

Schober, H. A. W.

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 152, 67 (1960).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 145, 579 (1959).

Other (17)

P. M. Duffieux, L'intégrale de Fourier et ses Applications à l'Optique (chez l'auteur, Rennes, 1946).

Otto H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

Yves Le Grand, Optique pliysiologique (Éditions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, 1956), Vol. 3.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 145, 579 (1959).

H. A. W. Schober and R. Hilz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1086 (1965).

J. G. Robson and F. W. Campbell, "The Physiological Basis for Form Discrimination" (symposium at Walter S. Hunter Laboratory of Psychology, Brown University, Providence, R. I., Jan. 1964).

A. S. Patel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 689 (1966).

O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 12, 1 (1965).

O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Acta 13, 55 (1966).

G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. 152, 67 (1960).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. 181, 576 (1965).

The technique involves the visual equalizing of an incoherent grating with a coherent one of the same spatial frequency. The modulation of the first is attenuated by the eye optics, whereas the modulation of the other is not.

Otto H. Schade, RCA Rev. 9, 653 (1948).

S. L. Polyak, The Vertebrate Visual System (Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1957).

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