Abstract

A sustained complementary hue may be obtained with a rotating black–white disc and pulses of chromatic light. Effects of disc rotation speed and of the chromaticity and luminance of the color pulse are described. The disc. observed at 11 speeds from 10 through 110 cps had a black and white sector. At the sector boundary there was an aperture through which red, yellow, green, blue, or purple light (filters equated for luminous transmittance) was pulsed for 3% of each cycle, followed by the white half cycle. Eleven observers made Munsell matches (total: 4995) to these lights, which were presented at three luminances. Complementary matches occurred 48% of the time, matches similar to the hues of the projected lights—33%, neutral matches—19%. There were systematic hue shifts around two pairs of stable points in the hue circle, as functions of disc rotation speed. The predominance of complementary matches over similar-hue matches varied with color-pulse chromaticity and luminance, and with disc speed.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Bidwell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 61, 268 (1897).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Sperling, Science 131, 1613 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. I. Goldiamond and L. F. Malpass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1117 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Lehmann, Science 112, 199 (1950).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Keston, Am. J. Psych. 78,(2), 264 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1957).
  7. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1957), p. 691.
  8. J. A. S. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 731 and 738 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Sperling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 541 (1965).
    [Crossref]

1965 (3)

1961 (1)

1960 (1)

G. Sperling, Science 131, 1613 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1950 (1)

H. Lehmann, Science 112, 199 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1897 (1)

S. Bidwell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 61, 268 (1897).
[Crossref]

Bidwell, S.

S. Bidwell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 61, 268 (1897).
[Crossref]

Goldiamond, I.

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1957), p. 691.

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1957), p. 691.

Keston, R.

R. Keston, Am. J. Psych. 78,(2), 264 (1965).
[Crossref]

Kinney, J. A. S.

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1957).

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, Science 112, 199 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpass, L. F.

Sperling, G.

Am. J. Psych. (1)

R. Keston, Am. J. Psych. 78,(2), 264 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

S. Bidwell, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 61, 268 (1897).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

G. Sperling, Science 131, 1613 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lehmann, Science 112, 199 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, 1957).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, in Visual Problems of Colour (H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1957), p. 691.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of apparatus: (a) a, subject, eyes 136 cm from rotating disc, binocular view; b, Munsell color charts; c, “C” illuminant sources; d, front aperture of box; e, rotating black and white disc; f, circular aperture in disc; g, fixed aperture in box; h diffusing screen; i, Wratten neutral filter for luminance control; j, color filter; k, tungsten projector; (b) subject’s view of stimulus through front aperture of box; direction of rotation indicated by arrow, with chromatic, light, and dark phases occurring in that order. Surround of front aperture was dark. Rotating disc was viewed against light gray background, remainder of interior of box was black.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average Munsell hue (a), value (b), and chroma (c) (filled circles) and standard deviation (each bar extends one standard deviation on each side of the mean) for the matching responses to each chromatic stimulus (abscissa) in terms of P (similar matches)—those having hues similar to the hues of the stimuli, and I (complementary matches)—those having hues similar to the complements of the stimuli.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hue shift as a function of disc-rotation speed. The ordinate represents the midpoints of two disc-frequency ranges: 10—60 cps and 60—110 cps. The abscissa represents 40 Munsell hues from 2.5 P through 10 PB. Solid circles and lines correspond to average similar-hue responses to each chromatic stimulus (identified by hue symbols along 85 cps line); open circles and light dashed lines to average complementary-hue responses; heavy, vertical, dashed lines to stable points toward which all hues shifted as disc frequency increased or decreased (Munsell hues for these four points are given below the 35 cps line). Arrows (top and bottom, horizontal) indicate directions of hue shifts between stable points for high and low disc-frequency ranges.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of yellow–blue (YB) and red–green (RG) systems that would account for the frequency-dependent hue shift. Ordinate represents both response strength, however measured, and stimulus luminance. Three luminances are indicated by the horizontal, dot–dashed line. The abscissa is a time scale upon which points between t0 and tn represent intervals between the end of a chromatic stimulus pulse and the onset of the dark phase of the disc cycle. The intervals from t0 to x, y, and z are, thus, light-phase durations. Points a, b, and c represent pairs of responses, after the visual response has reached maximum, that conform to the Bezold-Brücke effect. Vertical lines at x, y, and z cross the YB and RG systems at points that conform to the frequency-dependent hue shift. At points above y, and adjacent to b, neither system predominates; another such point exists to the left of a.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response frequencies for P (similar hue), I (complementary hue), and N (neutral) matches for each chromatic stimulus, all experimental conditions combined, as functions of cycle frequency (upper scale in each part of the figure) or cycle duration (lower scales). Solid lines correspond to I responses, dashed lines to P, dotted to N.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of effects of stimulus luminance upon frequency of P (similar hue), I (complementary hue), and N (neutral) matches as functions of cycle duration. Solid lines (b), dashed lines (m), and dot–dashed lines (d) stand for frequency of matches in bright, medium, and dim conditions, respectively. Open circles are computed data-point averages; elsewhere the curves are interpolated.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Stimulus Characteristics: (column 1) color name and Kodak Wratten number of color filter, (2) nominal luminous transmittance of color filter and associated Wratten neutral filters, (3) measured luminance of stimulus when projected through a 10% luminous-transmittance neutral filter, (4) nominal excitation purity of color filter, (5) nominal dominant wavelength of color filter.

Tables Icon

Table II Total response frequencies (row 3) by color filter and by response class: P—similar hues, I—complementary hues, and N—neutral responses; within-cell percentages of total response; first (row 1) and second (row 2) response frequencies for pair matches (see text).

Tables Icon

Table III Average Munsell hue, value, and chroma of similar-hue matches (P), complementary-hue matches (I); frequency of neutral responses (n); frequency of P responses (p), and of I responses (i) at three stimulus luminances: low, medium, and high; for two ranges of disc-rotation frequency: low (10–60 cps) and high (60–110 cps) and for ascending (+) and descending (−) orders of disc-frequency presentation.