Abstract

The intensity of Raman lines of small crystals can be appreciably enhanced by placing them in a liquid with equal, or nearly equal, refractive index. This technique usually gives better results than the hollow-cone method used with powders, especially with optically isotropic samples, provided small crystals (2–4 mm in size) can be obtained. In certain cases, the results are comparable to those obtained with much larger single crystals.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Dows, J. Chim. Phys. 63, 168 (1966).
  2. R. Savoie and A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 133 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Tobin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 850 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).
  6. A. V. Bobrov and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 17, 532 (1964); Opt. Spectry. 17, 287 (1964).
  7. R. H. Busey and O. L. Keller, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 215 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. N. Jones and M. K. Jones, Anal. Chem. 38, 393R (1966).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Loudon, Advan. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. C. Jones and D. D. Tunnicliff, Anal. Chem. 34, 261R (1962).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. P. Russell, J. Physique 26, 620 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  13. Unless otherwise specified, refractive indices are for sodium light (5893 Å), at 20°C, and were taken from R. C. Weast, Ed., The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, 1965–1966), 46th ed.
  14. J. L. Cojan and A. Renaux, Comp. Rend. 247, 1111 (1958).
  15. M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Thon, Ed., Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data (National Research Council, Frick Chemical Laboratory, Princeton, 1941), Sec. 921C.
  17. N. Bauer, Technique of Organic Chemistry (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949), 2nd ed., Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 1153.
  18. R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. W. Bunn, Chemical Crystallography (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961), 2nd ed., p. 375.
  20. T. E. Gibb, Optical Methods of Chemical Analysis (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1942).
  21. A. Anderson and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3468 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
    [Crossref]

1966 (3)

D. A. Dows, J. Chim. Phys. 63, 168 (1966).

R. N. Jones and M. K. Jones, Anal. Chem. 38, 393R (1966).
[Crossref]

S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (5)

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Anderson and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3468 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. P. Russell, J. Physique 26, 620 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Savoie and A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 133 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (3)

R. Loudon, Advan. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

A. V. Bobrov and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 17, 532 (1964); Opt. Spectry. 17, 287 (1964).

R. H. Busey and O. L. Keller, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 215 (1964).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

A. C. Jones and D. D. Tunnicliff, Anal. Chem. 34, 261R (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

1958 (1)

J. L. Cojan and A. Renaux, Comp. Rend. 247, 1111 (1958).

1956 (1)

A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).

1952 (1)

M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A.

A. Anderson and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3468 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Savoie and A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 133 (1965).
[Crossref]

Bauer, N.

N. Bauer, Technique of Organic Chemistry (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949), 2nd ed., Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 1153.

Bobrov, A. V.

A. V. Bobrov and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 17, 532 (1964); Opt. Spectry. 17, 287 (1964).

Bunn, C. W.

C. W. Bunn, Chemical Crystallography (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961), 2nd ed., p. 375.

Busey, R. H.

R. H. Busey and O. L. Keller, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 215 (1964).
[Crossref]

Cabana, A.

A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
[Crossref]

Cojan, J. L.

J. L. Cojan and A. Renaux, Comp. Rend. 247, 1111 (1958).

Crawford, M. F.

M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Damen, T. C.

S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
[Crossref]

DiGiorgio, J. B.

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

Dows, D. A.

D. A. Dows, J. Chim. Phys. 63, 168 (1966).

Elliot, J. J.

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

Ferraro, J.

J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
[Crossref]

Gibb, T. E.

T. E. Gibb, Optical Methods of Chemical Analysis (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1942).

Harrold, J. H.

M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Jones, A. C.

A. C. Jones and D. D. Tunnicliff, Anal. Chem. 34, 261R (1962).
[Crossref]

Jones, M. K.

R. N. Jones and M. K. Jones, Anal. Chem. 38, 393R (1966).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. N.

R. N. Jones and M. K. Jones, Anal. Chem. 38, 393R (1966).
[Crossref]

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

Keller, O. L.

R. H. Busey and O. L. Keller, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 215 (1964).
[Crossref]

Kriegsmann, H.

A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, Advan. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mack, G.

J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
[Crossref]

Nonenmacher, G. A. A.

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

Porto, S. P. S.

S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
[Crossref]

Renaux, A.

J. L. Cojan and A. Renaux, Comp. Rend. 247, 1111 (1958).

Russell, J. P.

J. P. Russell, J. Physique 26, 620 (1965).
[Crossref]

Savoie, R.

A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Anderson and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3468 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. Savoie and A. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 133 (1965).
[Crossref]

Simon, A.

A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).

Sterin, Kh. E.

A. V. Bobrov and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 17, 532 (1964); Opt. Spectry. 17, 287 (1964).

Stiger, E.

A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).

Tell, B.

S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
[Crossref]

Tobin, M.

Tunnicliff, D. D.

A. C. Jones and D. D. Tunnicliff, Anal. Chem. 34, 261R (1962).
[Crossref]

Welsh, H. L.

M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Ziomek, J.

J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
[Crossref]

Advan. Phys. (1)

R. Loudon, Advan. Phys. 13, 423 (1964).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. C. Jones and D. D. Tunnicliff, Anal. Chem. 34, 261R (1962).
[Crossref]

R. N. Jones and M. K. Jones, Anal. Chem. 38, 393R (1966).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

M. F. Crawford, H. L. Welsh, and J. H. Harrold, Can. J. Phys. 30, 81 (1952).
[Crossref]

Comp. Rend. (1)

J. L. Cojan and A. Renaux, Comp. Rend. 247, 1111 (1958).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

A. Anderson and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3468 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Cabana, A. Anderson, and R. Savoie, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 1122 (1965).
[Crossref]

R. H. Busey and O. L. Keller, J. Chem. Phys. 41, 215 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Chim. Phys. (1)

D. A. Dows, J. Chim. Phys. 63, 168 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Org. Chem. (1)

R. N. Jones, J. B. DiGiorgio, J. J. Elliot, and G. A. A. Nonenmacher, J. Org. Chem. 30, 1822 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Physique (1)

J. P. Russell, J. Physique 26, 620 (1965).
[Crossref]

Opt. i Spektroskopiya (1)

A. V. Bobrov and Kh. E. Sterin, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 17, 532 (1964); Opt. Spectry. 17, 287 (1964).

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, and T. C. Damen, Phys. Rev. Letters 16, 450 (1966).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

J. Ferraro, G. Mack, and J. Ziomek, Spectrochim. Acta 17, 802 (1961).
[Crossref]

Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) (1)

A. Simon, H. Kriegsmann, and E. Stiger, Z. Physik. Chem. (Leipzig) 205, 181 (1956).

Other (5)

Unless otherwise specified, refractive indices are for sodium light (5893 Å), at 20°C, and were taken from R. C. Weast, Ed., The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (The Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, 1965–1966), 46th ed.

C. W. Bunn, Chemical Crystallography (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1961), 2nd ed., p. 375.

T. E. Gibb, Optical Methods of Chemical Analysis (McGraw–Hill Book Co., New York, 1942).

N. Thon, Ed., Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data (National Research Council, Frick Chemical Laboratory, Princeton, 1941), Sec. 921C.

N. Bauer, Technique of Organic Chemistry (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1949), 2nd ed., Vol. I, Pt. II, p. 1153.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of spectral intensity (arbitrary units) of the Raman bands of NaClO3 (A) and NaBrO3 (B) small crystals as a function of the refractive indices of the immersion liquids. Vertical arrows indicate the refractive indices of the crystalline compounds, while horizontal arrows show the intensities obtained with powders by the hollow-cone method, in same instrumental conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Part of the Raman spectrum of NaBrO3 small crystals immersed in carbon disulfide (A) showing peaks due to the liquid (dotted curve). The corrected spectrum (B) is compared with that of the powder in cone (C) obtained in same instrumental conditions (except for the first portion of curves A and B).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Part of the Raman spectrum of KSCN small crystals immersed in carbon disulfide.

Equations (1)

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R = ( n 1 - n 2 ) 2 / ( n 1 + n 2 ) 2 .