Abstract

The spectral output of flash-discharge lamps containing iodine, and mixtures of iodine and the inert gases were studied at selected wavelengths and discharge voltages. It was found that addition of xenon or krypton to iodine produced a marked enhancement of the 2062-Å iodine line compared to the output from a pure iodine discharge. The enhancement of this line was found to be a maximum at approximately 130 torr and 3.0-kV discharge voltage with either of the inert gases. An enhancement factor of about 400 was found with added xenon and about 700 for a lamp filling containing krypton. It was postulated that, with xenon, energy-transfer collisions between metastable xenon and ground-state iodine atoms were responsible for the enhanced 2062-Å radiation. With krypton–iodine mixtures an additional mechanism for producing excited iodine atoms was the reaction of metastable krypton atoms with iodine molecules producing one ground-state iodine atom and one in the 6p4P3/2 state.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Pollack, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3459 (1965); T. H. Rautenberg and P. D. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 3, 487 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. D. Hoyt and W. W. McCormick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 658 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 849 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. A. Freeman, Westinghouse Engr. 8, 90 (1948); V. I. Vasil’ev, M. S. Levchuk, and I. S. Marshak, Opt. i Spektroskopyia 11, 118 (1961); J. N. Aldington, Endeavour 7, 21 (1948).
  5. John H. Goncz and P. Bruce Newell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 87 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).
  7. A more complete energy-level diagram for iodine can be found in Ref. 6. The exact energies and state designations of iodine were obtained from C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  III (1958).
  8. J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Thouret, Licht–Technik 2, 107 (1950).
  10. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  I (1949), Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  II (1952), and Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  III (1958).
  11. A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, 1934, Reprinted 1961), Ch. II.
  12. R. Turner, Phys. Rev. 140, A426 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. S. Smith and R. Turner, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. D. Verma, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 738 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. S. W. Massey and E. H. S. Burhop, Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1952), Ch. VII.
  16. L. Mathieson and A. L. G. Rees, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 753 (1956).
    [Crossref]

1966 (1)

1965 (2)

S. A. Pollack, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3459 (1965); T. H. Rautenberg and P. D. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 3, 487 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. Turner, Phys. Rev. 140, A426 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (2)

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

D. S. Smith and R. Turner, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

R. D. Verma, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 738 (1960).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A more complete energy-level diagram for iodine can be found in Ref. 6. The exact energies and state designations of iodine were obtained from C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  III (1958).

1956 (1)

L. Mathieson and A. L. G. Rees, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 753 (1956).
[Crossref]

1950 (2)

1949 (1)

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  I (1949), Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  II (1952), and Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  III (1958).

1948 (1)

G. A. Freeman, Westinghouse Engr. 8, 90 (1948); V. I. Vasil’ev, M. S. Levchuk, and I. S. Marshak, Opt. i Spektroskopyia 11, 118 (1961); J. N. Aldington, Endeavour 7, 21 (1948).

1941 (1)

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 849 (1941).
[Crossref]

Bruce Newell, P.

Burhop, E. H. S.

H. S. W. Massey and E. H. S. Burhop, Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1952), Ch. VII.

Edgerton, H. E.

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 849 (1941).
[Crossref]

Emmett, J. L.

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
[Crossref]

Freeman, G. A.

G. A. Freeman, Westinghouse Engr. 8, 90 (1948); V. I. Vasil’ev, M. S. Levchuk, and I. S. Marshak, Opt. i Spektroskopyia 11, 118 (1961); J. N. Aldington, Endeavour 7, 21 (1948).

Goncz, John H.

Harteck, P.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).

Hoyt, G. D.

Massey, H. S. W.

H. S. W. Massey and E. H. S. Burhop, Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1952), Ch. VII.

Mathieson, L.

L. Mathieson and A. L. G. Rees, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 753 (1956).
[Crossref]

McCormick, W. W.

Mitchell, A. C. G.

A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, 1934, Reprinted 1961), Ch. II.

Moore, C. E.

A more complete energy-level diagram for iodine can be found in Ref. 6. The exact energies and state designations of iodine were obtained from C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  III (1958).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  I (1949), Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  II (1952), and Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  III (1958).

Murphy, P. M.

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 849 (1941).
[Crossref]

Pollack, S. A.

S. A. Pollack, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3459 (1965); T. H. Rautenberg and P. D. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 3, 487 (1964).
[Crossref]

Rees, A. L. G.

L. Mathieson and A. L. G. Rees, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 753 (1956).
[Crossref]

Reeves, R. R.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).

Schawlow, A. L.

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. S.

D. S. Smith and R. Turner, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[Crossref]

Thompson, B. A.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).

Thouret, W.

W. Thouret, Licht–Technik 2, 107 (1950).

Turner, R.

R. Turner, Phys. Rev. 140, A426 (1965).
[Crossref]

D. S. Smith and R. Turner, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[Crossref]

Verma, R. D.

R. D. Verma, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 738 (1960).
[Crossref]

Weinberg, E. H.

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
[Crossref]

Zemansky, M. W.

A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, 1934, Reprinted 1961), Ch. II.

Atomic Energy Levels (2)

A more complete energy-level diagram for iodine can be found in Ref. 6. The exact energies and state designations of iodine were obtained from C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  III (1958).

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. 467, Vol.  I (1949), Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  II (1952), and Atomic Energy Levels Vol.  III (1958).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Smith and R. Turner, Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. L. Emmett, A. L. Schawlow, and E. H. Weinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2601 (1964).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pollack, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3459 (1965); T. H. Rautenberg and P. D. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 3, 487 (1964).
[Crossref]

P. M. Murphy and H. E. Edgerton, J. Appl. Phys. 12, 849 (1941).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. D. Verma, J. Chem. Phys. 32, 738 (1960).
[Crossref]

L. Mathieson and A. L. G. Rees, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 753 (1956).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Licht–Technik (1)

W. Thouret, Licht–Technik 2, 107 (1950).

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. Turner, Phys. Rev. 140, A426 (1965).
[Crossref]

Westinghouse Engr. (1)

G. A. Freeman, Westinghouse Engr. 8, 90 (1948); V. I. Vasil’ev, M. S. Levchuk, and I. S. Marshak, Opt. i Spektroskopyia 11, 118 (1961); J. N. Aldington, Endeavour 7, 21 (1948).

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, and B. A. Thompson, Z. Naturforsch. 19a, 2 (1964).

Other (2)

H. S. W. Massey and E. H. S. Burhop, Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1952), Ch. VII.

A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge University Press, 1934, Reprinted 1961), Ch. II.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic-iodine energy-level diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative intensity of the 2062-Å atomic-iodine line in arbitrary units for flash discharges containing xenon. Broken curves: Xe, solid curves: Xe+I2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative intensity of the 2062-Å atomic-iodine line in arbitrary units for flash discharges containing krypton. Broken curves: Kr, solid curves: Kr+I2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Lower excited states of inert gases.