Abstract

<p>Five observers made color-difference judgments by the method of triads. A triad (<i>S: A,B</i>) consisted of a standard stimulus <i>S</i> and two comparison stimuli, <i>A</i> and <i>B.</i> The observer reported which color difference appeared smaller, that between <i>A</i> and <i>S</i> or that between <i>B</i> and <i>S</i>. Triads were composed of monochromatic stimuli, adjusted to constant brightness for each observer. They contained both small color differences and ones that are markedly supraliminal. For any triad (<i>S: A,B</i>) it was assumed that the choice probability is an index of the relative sizes of the subjective differences (<i>A,S</i>) and (<i>B,S</i>). Estimated choice probabilities were converted to estimated distance measures by means of a scaling model based on assumptions about the observers’ judgmental task.</p><p>The obtained distance estimates were compared with standard wavelength-discrimination data, with Wright’s data on slightly supraliminal color differences, and with the large-difference predictions of the Hurvich-Jameson HBS color specification system. While the present data cannot be regarded as providing definitive color-difference measures (even for the limited range of conditions employed) they nevertheless contribute to the development of a metric space representation combining discriminability and supraliminal similarity.</p>

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).
  2. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).
  3. L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 25 (1926).
  4. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).
  5. W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808 (1949).
  6. S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).
  7. T. Indow and J. Uchizono, J. Exper. Psychol. 59, 321 (1960).
  8. W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).
  9. G. Ekman, J. Psychol. 38, 467 (1954).
  10. C. E. Helm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 256 (1964).
  11. H. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1650 (1965).
  12. D. H. Krantz, J. Math. Psychol. 4, 226 (1967).
  13. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).
  14. The spectral sensitivity curve of the photomultiplier tube was supplied by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson.
  15. I particularly wish to thank Dr. Robert M. Steinman (RMS) for advice regarding apparatus construction, as well as for unfailing care and patience during more than 150 hours of observing. This research was greatly aided by his interest.
  16. Munsell Book of Color (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1929).
  17. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normnal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947).
  18. L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).
  19. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 38, 80 (1952).
  20. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).
  21. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).
  22. L. C. Thomson, Nature 157, 805 (1946).
  23. L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 98 (1951).
  24. H. V. Helmholtz, Handb. d. Physiologischen Oplik, 2nd ed. (Voss, Hamburg, 1896).
  25. R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 339 (1938).
  26. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
  27. L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. VII: 37, 126 (1946).
  28. W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958).
  29. R. N. Shepard, Psychol. Rev. 65, 242 (1958).
  30. R. N. Shepard, Psychometrika 27, 125 (1962).
  31. R. D. Luce, Psychometrika 26, 151 (1961).
  32. If some probabilities are zero in the formal model underlying the data, Eq. (1) is assumed to hold only where probabilities are nonzero. A formal treatment of the model, incorporating zero probabilities, is found in Ref. 12.
  33. R. D. Luce, Individual Choice Behavior John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959).

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 38, 80 (1952).

Brown, W. R. J.

W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808 (1949).

Ekman, G.

G. Ekman, J. Psychol. 38, 467 (1954).

Helm, C. E.

C. E. Helm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 256 (1964).

Helmholtz, H. V.

H. V. Helmholtz, Handb. d. Physiologischen Oplik, 2nd ed. (Voss, Hamburg, 1896).

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 38, 80 (1952).

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).

The spectral sensitivity curve of the photomultiplier tube was supplied by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

Indow, T.

T. Indow and J. Uchizono, J. Exper. Psychol. 59, 321 (1960).

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

The spectral sensitivity curve of the photomultiplier tube was supplied by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).

Jones, L. A.

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 25 (1926).

Judd, D. B.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

Krantz, D. H.

D. H. Krantz, J. Math. Psychol. 4, 226 (1967).

Lowry, E. M.

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 25 (1926).

Luce, R. D.

R. D. Luce, Psychometrika 26, 151 (1961).

R. D. Luce, Individual Choice Behavior John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959).

MacAdam, D. L.

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).

W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808 (1949).

Newhall, S. M.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

Nickerson, D.

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

Shepard, R. N.

R. N. Shepard, Psychol. Rev. 65, 242 (1958).

R. N. Shepard, Psychometrika 27, 125 (1962).

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. VII: 37, 126 (1946).

Sinden, R. H.

R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 339 (1938).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, Nature 157, 805 (1946).

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 98 (1951).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).

Torgerson, W. S.

W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958).

Trezona, P. W.

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 98 (1951).

Uchizono, J.

T. Indow and J. Uchizono, J. Exper. Psychol. 59, 321 (1960).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).

Wright, H.

H. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1650 (1965).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normnal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947).

Other (33)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934).

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).

L. A. Jones and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 25 (1926).

D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).

W. R. J. Brown and D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 808 (1949).

S. M. Newhall, D. Nickerson, and D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 385 (1943).

T. Indow and J. Uchizono, J. Exper. Psychol. 59, 321 (1960).

W. D. Wright, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 53, 93 (1941).

G. Ekman, J. Psychol. 38, 467 (1954).

C. E. Helm, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 256 (1964).

H. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1650 (1965).

D. H. Krantz, J. Math. Psychol. 4, 226 (1967).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 416 (1956).

The spectral sensitivity curve of the photomultiplier tube was supplied by L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson.

I particularly wish to thank Dr. Robert M. Steinman (RMS) for advice regarding apparatus construction, as well as for unfailing care and patience during more than 150 hours of observing. This research was greatly aided by his interest.

Munsell Book of Color (Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, 1929).

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normnal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947).

L. C. Thomson, J. Physiol. (London) 112, 114 (1951).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 38, 80 (1952).

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 485 (1953).

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 435 (1951).

L. C. Thomson, Nature 157, 805 (1946).

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Physiol. (London) 114, 98 (1951).

H. V. Helmholtz, Handb. d. Physiologischen Oplik, 2nd ed. (Voss, Hamburg, 1896).

R. H. Sinden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 339 (1938).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

L. Silberstein, Phil. Mag. VII: 37, 126 (1946).

W. S. Torgerson, Theory and Methods of Scaling (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958).

R. N. Shepard, Psychol. Rev. 65, 242 (1958).

R. N. Shepard, Psychometrika 27, 125 (1962).

R. D. Luce, Psychometrika 26, 151 (1961).

If some probabilities are zero in the formal model underlying the data, Eq. (1) is assumed to hold only where probabilities are nonzero. A formal treatment of the model, incorporating zero probabilities, is found in Ref. 12.

R. D. Luce, Individual Choice Behavior John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1959).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.