Abstract

When the stimulating light was incident on the vitreal surface, the intraretinal S-potential exhibited a high degree of directional sensitivity. Stimulation directed at the receptor surface produced a small degree of sensitivity only when the retina was devoid of the pigment epithelium. The elements proximal to the outer segments of the receptors may contribute to the differences that were observed to result from the two modes of stimulation.

© 1967 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).
  2. Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1957), pp. 356–357.
  3. B. O’Brien, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 882 (1951).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 71 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Schroeder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 945 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).
  8. For a discussion of the S-potential, see T. Tomita, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 49 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. R. Detweiler, Vertebrate Photoreceptors (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1943), p. 44.
  10. Many attempts were made, without success, to record an S-potential from a retina with the receptor-side down and lacking an associated pigment epithelium.
  11. S. Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1956), pp. 116–127.
  12. G. Wald, P. K. Brown, and I. R. Gibbons, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 20 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).
  14. G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).
  15. J. H. Prince, Comparative Anatomy of the Eye (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1956), p.61.
  16. K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
    [Crossref]

1963 (3)

1962 (1)

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

1956 (2)

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref]

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

1951 (1)

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Brindley, G.

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

Brown, P. K.

Burke, J. J.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Detweiler, S. R.

S. R. Detweiler, Vertebrate Photoreceptors (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1943), p. 44.

Donner, K. O.

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

Enoch, J. M.

Gibbons, I. R.

Kapany, N. S.

N. S. Kapany and J. J. Burke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1474 (1961).

LeGrand, Y.

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1957), pp. 356–357.

Myers, O.

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, B.

Prince, J. H.

J. H. Prince, Comparative Anatomy of the Eye (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1956), p.61.

Rushton, W. A. H.

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

Schroeder, A.

Siegel, S.

S. Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1956), pp. 116–127.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Tansley, K.

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref]

Tomita, T.

Wald, G.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (2)

G. Brindley and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 147, 204 (1959).

K. O. Donner and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. (London) 132, 37P (1956).

Nature (2)

K. Tansley, Nature 178, 1285 (1956).
[Crossref]

O. Myers, Nature 193, 449 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B112, 428 (1933).

Other (5)

Y. LeGrand, Light, Colour, and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1957), pp. 356–357.

J. H. Prince, Comparative Anatomy of the Eye (Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1956), p.61.

S. R. Detweiler, Vertebrate Photoreceptors (The Macmillan Co., New York, 1943), p. 44.

Many attempts were made, without success, to record an S-potential from a retina with the receptor-side down and lacking an associated pigment epithelium.

S. Siegel, Nonparametric Statistics (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1956), pp. 116–127.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample records showing the effect of different angles of incident illumination on the S-potential. Record A was obtained when the vitreal surface was illuminated. Records B and C were recorded from preparations in which the receptor surface was illuminated. Recording B was obtained from a retina devoid of the pigment epithelium, whereas the pigment epithelium was intact in recording C. A slight degree of directional sensitivity is apparent in record B but not in C, although the latter shows some deterioration. Both records A and B show maximum sensitivity at −37°, indicating that the orientation of the receptors was disturbed. Superimposed on the stimulus marker shown in the first column is a time base of 0.1 sec. The downward deflection of the response indicates a negative potential at the recording electrode. The 10-mV calibration applies to records B and C.