Abstract

Color-discrimination data are compared with the predictions of a generalized fluctuation theory for visual threshold behavior. Our observations for the tritanopic component of vision at low luminances are in good agreement with the expectations from this theory. We measured just-noticeable differences of hue with equiluminous square-wave test objects, which were modulated only in chromaticity. A chromaticity-contrast sensitivity function was introduced for the description of these results, in analogy of the luminance-contrast sensitivity function. Observations were made for different spatial frequencies at four reference wavelengths and at several luminance levels. The results do not show an attenuation of the low frequencies such as appears in the luminance-threshold contrast modulation. We infer from this that spatial interactions are different in the chromaticness and brightness channels of the visual system. Furthermore a decrease of the luminance level causes an increase of the neural integrative interaction of the color signals. We divided the measured chromaticity-contrast sensitivity function into an optical and a nervous component. A calculation for the optical part is given.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380 (1954).
  2. O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).
  3. M. A. Bouman, Physicomathematical Aspects of Biology; Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961). p. 142.
  4. M. A. Bouman, Acta Psychol. 23, 239 (1964).
  5. M. A. Bouman and C. G. F. Ampt, Performiances of the Eye at Low Luminances (Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 57.
  6. P. L. Walraven, On the Mechanismns of Color Vision. (Thesis, University of Utrecht, 1962).
  7. M. A. Bouman, and P. L. Walraven, Vis. Res. 2, 177 (1962).
  8. P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Vis. Res. 6, 567 (1966).
  9. P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Proc. CIE—Congr., Vienna, 18, (1964).
  10. M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).
  11. E. Schrödinger, Ann. Physik (IV) 63, 481 (1920).
  12. L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 63 (1938).
  13. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).
  14. H. von Schelling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1072 (1955).
  15. L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 10, 193 (1961).
  16. W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle and E. F. MacNichol, Jr., Science 143, 1181 (1964).
  17. P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).
  18. R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).
  19. T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, 3. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).
  20. L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Phys. 114, 98 (1951).
  21. F. B. Fischer, M. A. Bouman, and J. ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophth. 5, 55 (1951).
  22. W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).
  23. F. G. H. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).
  24. L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).
  25. Reflection of the light from the lamp L0 on the transparent parts of the grating was eliminated by polarization of the light w1ith the Polaroid sheet P0.
  26. A. C. S. van Heel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 237 (1946).
  27. M. H. Siegel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1067 (1962).
  28. S. Ooue, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 28, 531 (1959).
  29. J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 1962).
  30. F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).
  31. F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).
  32. O. H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 67, 801 (1958).
  33. F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), p. 63.
  34. H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).
  35. A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).
  36. Aλ(ω) = 2/π{θ-sinθ·cosθ} in which cosθ = (180/π) · (λ/p) · ν. P is the pupil diameter and ν the spatial frequency in cpd. An extensive treatment on this subject is given in A. Maréchal and M. Françon Diffraction, Structure des Images, (Ed. Revue d'optique théorique et instrumentale, Paris, 1960).
  37. A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).
  38. C. R. Cavonius, Science 152, 1276 (1966).

Abramov, I.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Ampt, C. G. F.

M. A. Bouman and C. G. F. Ampt, Performiances of the Eye at Low Luminances (Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 57.

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

Bouman, M. A.

M. A. Bouman, Acta Psychol. 23, 239 (1964).

M. A. Bouman and C. G. F. Ampt, Performiances of the Eye at Low Luminances (Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 57.

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Vis. Res. 6, 567 (1966).

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Proc. CIE—Congr., Vienna, 18, (1964).

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

M. A. Bouman, Physicomathematical Aspects of Biology; Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961). p. 142.

F. B. Fischer, M. A. Bouman, and J. ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophth. 5, 55 (1951).

M. A. Bouman, and P. L. Walraven, Vis. Res. 2, 177 (1962).

Brown, P. K.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Cavonius, C. R.

C. R. Cavonius, Science 152, 1276 (1966).

de Lange, H.

H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380 (1954).

de Vries, H.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

DePalma, J. J.

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 1962).

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Dobelle, W. H.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle and E. F. MacNichol, Jr., Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

Fischer, F. B.

F. B. Fischer, M. A. Bouman, and J. ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophth. 5, 55 (1951).

Françon, M.

Aλ(ω) = 2/π{θ-sinθ·cosθ} in which cosθ = (180/π) · (λ/p) · ν. P is the pupil diameter and ν the spatial frequency in cpd. An extensive treatment on this subject is given in A. Maréchal and M. Françon Diffraction, Structure des Images, (Ed. Revue d'optique théorique et instrumentale, Paris, 1960).

Friele, L. F. C.

L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 10, 193 (1961).

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Hubel, D. H.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, 3. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

Jacobs, G. H.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

Lowry, E. M.

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 1962).

MacNichol, Jr., E. F.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle and E. F. MacNichol, Jr., Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Maréchal, A.

Aλ(ω) = 2/π{θ-sinθ·cosθ} in which cosθ = (180/π) · (λ/p) · ν. P is the pupil diameter and ν the spatial frequency in cpd. An extensive treatment on this subject is given in A. Maréchal and M. Françon Diffraction, Structure des Images, (Ed. Revue d'optique théorique et instrumentale, Paris, 1960).

Marks, W. B.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle and E. F. MacNichol, Jr., Science 143, 1181 (1964).

Ooue, S.

S. Ooue, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 28, 531 (1959).

Pitt, F. G. H.

F. G. H. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).

Ratliff, F.

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), p. 63.

Rose, A.

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

Schade, O. H.

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

O. H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 67, 801 (1958).

Schrödinger, E.

E. Schrödinger, Ann. Physik (IV) 63, 481 (1920).

Siegel, M. H.

M. H. Siegel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1067 (1962).

Silberstein, L.

L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 63 (1938).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

ten Doesschate, J.

F. B. Fischer, M. A. Bouman, and J. ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophth. 5, 55 (1951).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Phys. 114, 98 (1951).

Trezona, P. W.

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Phys. 114, 98 (1951).

van Heel, A. C. S.

A. C. S. van Heel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 237 (1946).

van Nes, F. L.

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

von Schelling, H.

H. von Schelling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1072 (1955).

Wald, G.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

Walraven, P. L.

M. A. Bouman, and P. L. Walraven, Vis. Res. 2, 177 (1962).

P. L. Walraven, On the Mechanismns of Color Vision. (Thesis, University of Utrecht, 1962).

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Vis. Res. 6, 567 (1966).

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Proc. CIE—Congr., Vienna, 18, (1964).

Wiesel, T. N.

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, 3. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).

Other

H. de Lange, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 380 (1954).

O. H. Schade, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 721 (1956).

M. A. Bouman, Physicomathematical Aspects of Biology; Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961). p. 142.

M. A. Bouman, Acta Psychol. 23, 239 (1964).

M. A. Bouman and C. G. F. Ampt, Performiances of the Eye at Low Luminances (Excerpta Medica Foundation, Amsterdam, 1966), p. 57.

P. L. Walraven, On the Mechanismns of Color Vision. (Thesis, University of Utrecht, 1962).

M. A. Bouman, and P. L. Walraven, Vis. Res. 2, 177 (1962).

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Vis. Res. 6, 567 (1966).

P. L. Walraven and M. A. Bouman, Proc. CIE—Congr., Vienna, 18, (1964).

M. A. Bouman, J. J. Vos and P. L. Walraven, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 121 (1963).

E. Schrödinger, Ann. Physik (IV) 63, 481 (1920).

L. Silberstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28, 63 (1938).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 58, 41 (1946).

H. von Schelling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1072 (1955).

L. F. C. Friele, Farbe 10, 193 (1961).

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle and E. F. MacNichol, Jr., Science 143, 1181 (1964).

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 45 (1964).

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, 3. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966 (1966).

T. N. Wiesel and D. H. Hubel, 3. Neurophysiol. 29, 1115 (1966).

L. C. Thomson and P. W. Trezona, J. Phys. 114, 98 (1951).

F. B. Fischer, M. A. Bouman, and J. ten Doesschate, Documenta Ophth. 5, 55 (1951).

W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 509 (1952).

F. G. H. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B. 132, 101 (1944).

L. C. Thomson and W. D. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 890 (1953).

Reflection of the light from the lamp L0 on the transparent parts of the grating was eliminated by polarization of the light w1ith the Polaroid sheet P0.

A. C. S. van Heel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 237 (1946).

M. H. Siegel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1067 (1962).

S. Ooue, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 28, 531 (1959).

J. J. DePalma and E. M. Lowry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 328 1962).

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

F. L. van Nes and M. A. Bouman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).

O. H. Schade, J. Soc. Motion Picture Television Engrs. 67, 801 (1958).

F. Ratliff, Mach Bands: Quantitative Studies on Neural Networks in the Retina (Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, 1965), p. 63.

H. de Vries, Physica 10, 553 (1943).

A. Rose, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 196 (1948).

Aλ(ω) = 2/π{θ-sinθ·cosθ} in which cosθ = (180/π) · (λ/p) · ν. P is the pupil diameter and ν the spatial frequency in cpd. An extensive treatment on this subject is given in A. Maréchal and M. Françon Diffraction, Structure des Images, (Ed. Revue d'optique théorique et instrumentale, Paris, 1960).

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Compt. Rend. 250, 2757 (1960).

C. R. Cavonius, Science 152, 1276 (1966).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.