Abstract

The time course of the decay of the positive afterimage following high-intensity flashes was measured by monocular and binocular brightness matching. The comparison field luminance was adjusted by means of crossed neutral wedges driven by a reversible motor. Density of the wedges was continuously recorded and the afterimage was tracked up to seven minutes following the flashes. Flash durations of 0.24 to 1.4 msec were used with a flash luminance of 4×105 L. With a 10° monocular bipartite photometric field, the afterimage brightness 5 sec following a 3×107 td·sec flash was matched by a 105-td comparison field. Photometric matches made monocularly or binocularly with an annular afterimage, 10° o.d. and 5° i.d., concentric with a 2° centrally fixated comparison field required approximately 104 td. A 2° central afterimage matched with an annular comparison field showed no significant difference from the annular afterimage. The results for the first two minutes following the flashes for all conditions showed a linear relationship between the logarithm of the comparison field luminance and the logarithm of the time measured from the flash.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 38, 507 (1927).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. J. W. Craik and M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychiat. 32, 62 (1941–42).
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    [Crossref]
  4. M. Alpern and L. Barr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 219 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 147, 194 (1959).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. N. D. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1661 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

1959 (1)

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 147, 194 (1959).

1957 (1)

C. A. Padgham, Opt. Acta 4, 102 (1957).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

C. A. Padgham, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 165 (1953).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

V. M. Robertson and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 265 (1937).
[Crossref]

1927 (1)

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

Alpern, M.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, L.

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 147, 194 (1959).

Craik, K. J. W.

K. J. W. Craik and M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychiat. 32, 62 (1941–42).

Fry, G. A.

V. M. Robertson and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 265 (1937).
[Crossref]

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

Miller, N. D.

Padgham, C. A.

C. A. Padgham, Opt. Acta 4, 102 (1957).
[Crossref]

C. A. Padgham, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 165 (1953).
[Crossref]

Robertson, V. M.

V. M. Robertson and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 265 (1937).
[Crossref]

Sparrock, J. M. B.

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vernon, M. D.

K. J. W. Craik and M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychiat. 32, 62 (1941–42).

Am. J. Psychol. (2)

D. B. Judd, Am. J. Psychol. 38, 507 (1927).
[Crossref]

V. M. Robertson and G. A. Fry, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 265 (1937).
[Crossref]

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. A. Padgham, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 165 (1953).
[Crossref]

Brit. J. Psychiat. (1)

K. J. W. Craik and M. D. Vernon, Brit. J. Psychiat. 32, 62 (1941–42).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. (1)

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 147, 194 (1959).

Opt. Acta (1)

C. A. Padgham, Opt. Acta 4, 102 (1957).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. B. Barlow and J. M. B. Sparrock, Science 144, 1309 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

F. 1
F. 1

Schematic drawing of the optical system for presenting a variable comparison field for continuous matching of the afterimage brightness following brief flashes of high intensity. The solid lines indicate the arrangement for monocular matching and the broken lines show the light path and the elements introduced for binocular matching. The mirror M1 could be rotated about a vertical axis to adjust the interpupillary distance. Collimated light from flash source is incident an S1.

F. 2
F. 2

Three traces of the wedge density required to maintain a photometric match between the comparison field and the afterimage brightness following 3×107-td·sec flashes for one subject. A monocular bipartite field was used and the flashes were delivered at 8-min intervals.

F. 3
F. 3

The results for six subjects of afterimage brightness matching with a monocular bipartite field showing the large variation between subjects. The afterimages were formed by 0.56-msec flashes of 4×105 L.

F. 4
F. 4

The group means for six subjects of the log retinal illuminance required for monocular bipartite matching of the afterimages for 2 min following 4×105 L flashes. The solid dots are the data for 1.4-msec flashes and the open circles for 0.56-msec flashes.

F. 5
F. 5

The graphs show the linear relationship between the logarithm of the retinal illuminance to match the afterimages and the logarithm of the times following the flashes. The data are the group means for monocular matching of annular afterimages formed by 4×105 L flashes of 1.4-msec and 0.24-msec duration.

F. 6
F. 6

The results for two subjects of monocular bipartite afterimage matching for 6 min following 3×107 td·sec flashes. Subject V. K. shows a linear relationship between the log of the retinal illuminance to match the afterimage and the log of the time following the flash while subject R. B. shows an interesting break between two linear branches.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Log retinal illuminance in td from an external matching field required to match the afterimage brightness following 4×105-L flashes of 0.24- and 1.4-msec duration. The values are the group means for six subjects. The measurements recorded in columns (2) and (3) were made during a single session by each subject; those in columns (4) and (5) were made during another single session.

Equations (2)

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B = 10 6 t 3
B = 8 × 10 4 t 3