Abstract

Recognition of signal colors has been studied by statistics of use of names of red, yellow, green, blue, and difficult, over a wide range of illuminance. Results have been compared with those obtained by other authors. The absence of “white” and inclusion of “difficult” in the permissible responses appear to be responsible for difficulties in the blue and yellow recognitions.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Colors of Light Signals, Publication CIE No. 2 (W-1.33) 1959.
  2. H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 17, 955 (1936).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. G. Holmes, Trans. Ilium. Engrg. (London) 6, 71 (1941).
  4. N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. C. Breckenridge, Tentative U. S. Standard for the colors of signal lights—Prepared in collaboration with the U. S. National Committee on colors of signal lights, Part V, p. 1 (1962).
  6. J. G. Holmes, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 240 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. M. Halsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 45 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Halsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 167 (1959).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. C. Breckenridge and W. R. Schaub, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 370 (1939).
    [Crossref]

1962 (1)

F. C. Breckenridge, Tentative U. S. Standard for the colors of signal lights—Prepared in collaboration with the U. S. National Committee on colors of signal lights, Part V, p. 1 (1962).

1959 (3)

R. M. Halsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 45 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Halsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 167 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Colors of Light Signals, Publication CIE No. 2 (W-1.33) 1959.

1949 (1)

J. G. Holmes, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 240 (1949).
[Crossref]

1947 (1)

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

J. G. Holmes, Trans. Ilium. Engrg. (London) 6, 71 (1941).

1939 (1)

1936 (1)

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

Breckenridge, F. C.

F. C. Breckenridge, Tentative U. S. Standard for the colors of signal lights—Prepared in collaboration with the U. S. National Committee on colors of signal lights, Part V, p. 1 (1962).

F. C. Breckenridge and W. R. Schaub, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 370 (1939).
[Crossref]

Halsey, R. M.

Hill, N. E. G.

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947).
[Crossref]

Holmes, J. G.

J. G. Holmes, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 240 (1949).
[Crossref]

J. G. Holmes, Trans. Ilium. Engrg. (London) 6, 71 (1941).

McNicholas, H. J.

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

Schaub, W. R.

Colors of Light Signals (1)

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Colors of Light Signals, Publication CIE No. 2 (W-1.33) 1959.

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. G. Holmes, Doc. Ophthalmol. 3, 240 (1949).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (1)

H. J. McNicholas, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 17, 955 (1936).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

N. E. G. Hill, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 560 (1947).
[Crossref]

Tentative U. S. Standard for the colors of signal lights—Prepared in collaboration with the U. S. National Committee on colors of signal lights, Part V (1)

F. C. Breckenridge, Tentative U. S. Standard for the colors of signal lights—Prepared in collaboration with the U. S. National Committee on colors of signal lights, Part V, p. 1 (1962).

Trans. Ilium. Engrg. (London) (1)

J. G. Holmes, Trans. Ilium. Engrg. (London) 6, 71 (1941).

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Figures (3)

F. 1
F. 1

Scheme for the signal-color source: S1 and S2—light sources; R—rotary disk with color filters at the periphery; M—motor; g—partially coated glass plate at which the filter color is desaturated with white light; W1—neutral density wedge for controlling the desaturation; W2—neutral density wedge controlling the final emittance from the hole h which fixes the signal size; D—density filter of unit density, used for runs at a lower level of illuminance.

F. 2
F. 2

Chromaticities of the signal colors studied, in the conventional CIE representation. W is the chromaticity for radiation from either source, S1 or S2; f represents the chromaticity of the filter.

F. 3
F. 3

Chromaticities of the signal colors, when the unit-density neutral filter was inserted in addition, in the RUCS diagram of Breckenridge and Schaub. d′ represents the chromaticity of the filter and is identical with f of Fig. 2.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Chromaticities of observed colors and illuminance (higher level, i.e., without any density filter at the W2 wedge).

Tables Icon

Table II Frequency of response with given color names. Illuminance 0–15 mile-candles.

Tables Icon

Table III Frequency of response with given color names. Illuminance 15–100 mile-candles.

Tables Icon

Table IV Frequency of response with given color-names. Illuminance 100–above mile-candles.