Abstract

Construction and performance of a far-infrared diffraction-grating spectrometer are described and compared with those of the Michelson interferometer built by Richards. There is no marked difference between the spectral resolutions of these two instruments. The resolutions attained are between 0.1 and 0.05 cm−1 in the spectral region from 30 cm−1 to 60 cm−1. Some features of the spectrometer discussed in the article are the focusing of the beam on the Golay detector by a conical light pipe, the manufacture of long, thin conical light pipes and of Yoshinaga filters, a special design of the optical path, and a new optical arrangement for reflectance measurements.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. L. Richards, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1474 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. For example, see: R. A. Oetjen and et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 559 (1952);L. Genzel and W. Eckhardt, Z. Physik 139, 579 (1954);H. Yoshinaga and et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 315 (1958);N. G. Yaroslavskii and A. E. Stanevitch, Opt. Spectry. 6, 521 (1959);Opt. Spectry. 7, 380 (1959);P. L. Richards and M. Tinkham, Phys. Rev. 119, 575 (1960);V. N. Murzin and A. I. Demshina, Opt. Spectry. 13, 467 (1963);I. Makino and et al., Report of the Conf. on Photographic and Spectoscopic Optics, Tokyo and Kyoto, Sept. (1964), p. 369;T. Sakurai and S. Takahashi, p. 358.
    [Crossref]
  3. H. A. Gebbie, Symposium on Interferometry, N.P.L. (1959), Paper 5-4;Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 156.
  4. H. Yoshinaga, Report of the Conf. on Photographic and Spectroscopic Optics, Tokyo and Kyoto, Sept. (1964), p. 420.
  5. J. Strong and G. A. Vanasse, J. Phys. Radium 19, 192 (1958);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 113 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Genzel and R. Weber, Z. Angew Physik 10, 127, 195 (1958);L. Genzel, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 241 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. F. Renk and L. Genzel, Appl. Opt. 1, 643 (1962);R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, and L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. U. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 713 (1947).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Roberts and D. D. Coon (private communication).
  11. F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 17 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. E. Williamson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 712 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 531 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. H. Günthard, Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland (private communication).

1966 (1)

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

1965 (2)

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1962 (2)

1958 (3)

J. Strong and G. A. Vanasse, J. Phys. Radium 19, 192 (1958);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 113 (1960).
[Crossref]

L. Genzel and R. Weber, Z. Angew Physik 10, 127, 195 (1958);L. Genzel, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 241 (1960).
[Crossref]

M. Tinkham, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 531 (1958).
[Crossref]

1952 (2)

1947 (1)

1930 (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Camani, M.

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

Coon, D. D.

S. Roberts and D. D. Coon (private communication).

Czerny, M.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Gebbie, H. A.

H. A. Gebbie, Symposium on Interferometry, N.P.L. (1959), Paper 5-4;Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 156.

Genzel, L.

Günthard, H. H.

H. H. Günthard, Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland (private communication).

Kneubühl, F. K.

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

Moser, J.-F.

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

Oetjen, R. A.

Renk, K. F.

Richards, P. L.

Roberts, S.

S. Roberts and D. D. Coon (private communication).

Steffen, H.

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

Steffen, J.

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

Strong, J.

J. Strong and G. A. Vanasse, J. Phys. Radium 19, 192 (1958);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 113 (1960).
[Crossref]

Tandler, W.

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

Tinkham, M.

Turner, A. F.

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Vanasse, G. A.

J. Strong and G. A. Vanasse, J. Phys. Radium 19, 192 (1958);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 113 (1960).
[Crossref]

Weber, R.

L. Genzel and R. Weber, Z. Angew Physik 10, 127, 195 (1958);L. Genzel, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 241 (1960).
[Crossref]

White, J. U.

Williamson, D. E.

Yoshinaga, H.

H. Yoshinaga, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 17 (1962).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshinaga, Report of the Conf. on Photographic and Spectroscopic Optics, Tokyo and Kyoto, Sept. (1964), p. 420.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

J. Strong and G. A. Vanasse, J. Phys. Radium 19, 192 (1958);J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 113 (1960).
[Crossref]

Phys. Letters (1)

H. Steffen, J. Steffen, J.-F. Moser, and F. K. Kneubühl, Phys. Letters 20, 20 (1966).
[Crossref]

Z. Angew Physik (1)

L. Genzel and R. Weber, Z. Angew Physik 10, 127, 195 (1958);L. Genzel, J. Mol. Spectry. 4, 241 (1960).
[Crossref]

Z. Angew. Math. Phys. (2)

F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, H. Steffen, and W. Tandler, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 560 (1965).
[Crossref]

M. Camani, F. K. Kneubühl, J.-F. Moser, and H. Steffen, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 16, 562 (1965).
[Crossref]

Z. Physik (1)

M. Czerny and A. F. Turner, Z. Physik 61, 792 (1930).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

H. A. Gebbie, Symposium on Interferometry, N.P.L. (1959), Paper 5-4;Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, Ed. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1961), p. 156.

H. Yoshinaga, Report of the Conf. on Photographic and Spectroscopic Optics, Tokyo and Kyoto, Sept. (1964), p. 420.

S. Roberts and D. D. Coon (private communication).

H. H. Günthard, Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland (private communication).

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Figures (5)

F. 1
F. 1

Optical path of the spectrometer, for reflection measurements. S, source; FG, filter gratings; M, spherical mirrors; R, reststrahlen plates or filter gratings; C, chopper; SL, slits; DG, diffraction grating; PM, plane mirror; SA, sample; L, light pipe; CL, conical light pipe; G, Golay detector.

F. 2
F. 2

Unit for reflection measurements. C, cryostat; S, sample; L, light pipe; M, spherical mirror; D, Golay detector; T, adjustable table.

F. 3
F. 3

Transmittance of H2O vapor: (A) Reconstructed spectrum as measured by Richards using the Michelson interferometer [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1480 (1964)]; (B) Spectrum recorded with our diffraction-grating spectrometer. Absorption path: 740 cm; vapor pressure: 66 torr; diffraction grating: 3.33 lines/mm; slit width: 4.5 mm: time constant: 24 sec; recording time: 1.315 min/μ. Inserted curve at 260 μ: same conditions; inserted curve at 180 μ: slit width: 2.5 mm.

F. 4
F. 4

Normalized transmittance of H2O vapor at 55.6 cm−1 (180 μ); vapor pressure: 2 torr. (A) Measured by Richards using the Michelson interferometer [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1481 (1964)]. (B) Measured with our diffraction-grating spectrometer. Absorption path: 740 cm; diffraction grating: 3.33 lines/mm; slit width 2.2 mm; time constant: 24 sec; recording time 5.47 min/μ.

F. 5
F. 5

Normalized transmittance of H2O vapor at 38.5 cm−1 (260 μ). (A) Reconstructed spectrum as measured by Richards using the Michelson interferometer [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1480 (1964)]. (B) Measured with our diffraction-grating spectrometer. Absorption path: 740 cm; vapor pressure: 2 torr; diffraction grating: 3.33 lines/mm; slit width: 2.5 mm; time constant: 24 sec; recording time: 5.47 min/μ.