Abstract

Multiple-beam interference fringes between two closely spaced highly reflecting surfaces have long been used for sensitive examination of surface contours. The spacing between the two surfaces has been limited to a few millimeters at most to minimize the walk-off effect of the beam between the two slightly angled surfaces and to obtain fringes having a narrow width compared to their spacing, usually referred to as a high finesse.

A system consisting of two spherical surfaces with a lens between them gives sharp multiple-beam fringes at a spacing of 50 cm. Fringes with a contour interval of λ/6 result from the use of the separate wavelengths of a helium–neon laser as a source.

This long-path system can be used to examine the index homogeneity in a sizeable thickness of transparent solids, plasmas, or gases. The system should be useful for examining thermal, pressure, or composition gradients in wind tunnels, shock tubes, or plasma studies with about ten times normal sensitivity.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1948).
  2. D. R. Herriott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1142 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. W. Moos, G. F. Imbasch, L. F. Mollenauer, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 2, 817 (1963).This group has obtained multiple-beam interference at spacings up to 20 cm by reducing the angle between the plates so that few fringes cover the whole field. This reduces spatial resolution.
    [CrossRef]
  4. This type of cavity was analyzed in its folded and therefore, confocal condition in the paper: G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. V. Pole has also considered this cavity as a laser resonator. R. V. Pole, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 254 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1963 (1)

1961 (2)

This type of cavity was analyzed in its folded and therefore, confocal condition in the paper: G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Herriott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1142 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

This type of cavity was analyzed in its folded and therefore, confocal condition in the paper: G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

This type of cavity was analyzed in its folded and therefore, confocal condition in the paper: G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Imbasch, G. F.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Moos, H. W.

Pole, R. V.

Schawlow, A. L.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple-Beam Interferometry (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1948).

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Figures (11)

F. 1
F. 1

Conventional multiple-beam interferometer.

F. 2
F. 2

(A) Conventional multiple-beam fringes of mica cleavage plane; (B) Multiple-wavelength, multiple-beam fringes of mica cleavage plane.

F. 3
F. 3

Multiple reflections between plates at an angle.

F. 4
F. 4

Long-path, multiple-beam interferometer.

F. 5
F. 5

Ray path in interferometer due to tipped mirror.

F. 6
F. 6

Fringe patterns with a single laser wavelength.

F. 7
F. 7

Fringe patterns with three or more wavelengths.

F. 8
F. 8

Three laser wavelengths adjusted to give fringes at λ/6 spacing.

F. 9
F. 9

Multiple-beam testing of large optical surfaces.

F. 10
F. 10

Multiple-beam interferometer in a wind tunnel or shock tube.

F. 11
F. 11

Multiple-beam fringe patterns of common samples with λ/6 fringe spacing.

Equations (1)

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F = π ( R ) 1 2 / ( 1 R )