Abstract

Spectral sensitivity and color vision tests were performed on a subject who was totally color blind at low photopic luminances, but exhibited hue discrimination at relatively high photopic levels. Chromaticity confusion loci showed that the residual color vision was abnormal; a tritan defect was superimposed on the generalized reduction of cone sensitivity. Although cone function was markedly depressed, a photopic spectral sensitivity curve was obtained for the light-adapted fovea. Dark-adapted foveal measurements, on the other hand, gave a scotopic function almost identical to that of the dark-adapted periphery. However, it was possible to demonstrate objectively that this subject shifts fixation to an eccentric position under scotopic conditions, i.e., the dark-adapted “foveal” results were, in fact, for a para-macular region. Irrespective of the degree of light adaptation, cone function was not detectable in the peripheral measurements.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. L. Sloan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 117 (1954).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. E. Carr and I. M. Siegel, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 95 (1964).
    [PubMed]
  6. W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112B, 428 (1933).
  7. M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).
  8. D. Farnsworth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Verriest (personal communication).
  10. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Chap. 14.
  11. W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).
  13. Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. G. Sperling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 156 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I. M. Siegel and B. Bruno, Arch. Ophthalmol. 72, 670 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 119, 170 (1953).
  17. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 193 (1961).
  18. M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).
  19. S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  20. S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

1964 (2)

R. E. Carr and I. M. Siegel, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 95 (1964).
[PubMed]

I. M. Siegel and B. Bruno, Arch. Ophthalmol. 72, 670 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1961 (3)

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[Crossref]

M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 193 (1961).

1960 (3)

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).

H. G. Sperling, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 156 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 119, 170 (1953).

1952 (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

1943 (3)

1942 (1)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112B, 428 (1933).

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[Crossref]

Blackwell, O. M.

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[Crossref]

Bruno, B.

I. M. Siegel and B. Bruno, Arch. Ophthalmol. 72, 670 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, R. E.

R. E. Carr and I. M. Siegel, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 95 (1964).
[PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112B, 428 (1933).

Falls, H. F.

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).

Farnsworth, D.

Foss, C. E.

Fuortes, M. G. F.

M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).

Goodman, G.

G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graham, C. H.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
[Crossref]

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Chap. 14.

Granville, W. C.

Gunkel, R. D.

M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).

Haig, C.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Harrison, R.

R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayward, J. N.

R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).

Hoefnagel, D.

R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsia, Y.

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
[Crossref]

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Chap. 14.

Lee, G. B.

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).

Lewis, S. D.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

Mandelbaum, J.

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

Nickerson, D.

Peskin, J. C.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Pirenne, M.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).

Ripps, H.

G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 193 (1961).

Shlaer, S.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).

Siegel, I. M.

R. E. Carr and I. M. Siegel, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 95 (1964).
[PubMed]

I. M. Siegel and B. Bruno, Arch. Ophthalmol. 72, 670 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sloan, L. L.

Smith, E. L.

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

Sperling, H. G.

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112B, 428 (1933).

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest (personal communication).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 119, 170 (1953).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

R. E. Carr and I. M. Siegel, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 58, 95 (1964).
[PubMed]

M. Alpern, H. F. Falls, and G. B. Lee, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 50, 326, part 2 (1960).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (4)

S. D. Lewis and J. Mandelbaum, Arch. Ophthalmol. 30, 225 (1943).
[Crossref]

I. M. Siegel and B. Bruno, Arch. Ophthalmol. 72, 670 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Harrison, D. Hoefnagel, and J. N. Hayward, Arch. Ophthalmol. 64, 685 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Goodman, H. Ripps, and I. M. Siegel, Arch. Ophthalmol. 70, 214 (1963).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (2)

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, E. L. Smith, C. Haig, and J. C. Peskin, J. Gen. Physiol. 31, 459 (1948).

S. Hecht, S. Shlaer, and M. Pirenne, J. Gen. Physiol. 25, 819 (1942).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Physiol. (3)

M. G. F. Fuortes, R. D. Gunkel, and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 179 (1961).

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. 119, 170 (1953).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 156, 193 (1961).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 38, 80 (1952).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) 112B, 428 (1933).

Vision Res. (1)

H. R. Blackwell and O. M. Blackwell, Vision Res. 1, 62 (1961).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

G. Verriest (personal communication).

Y. Hsia and C. H. Graham, in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Chap. 14.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Score profiles of the Farnsworth–Munsell 100-Hue Test. Subject: D. M. (A) 37 ft-c, illuminant C; (B) 125 ft-c, “daylight” fluorescent lamps; (C) 11 150 ft-c, direct sunlight.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color-confusion lines for subject D. M. mapped on the CIE chromaticity diagram. Same illuminants as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral-sensitivity curves from central and peripheral retina of a normal observer, I.M.S. (●) Dark-adapted eye, 7° nasal retina; (○) dark adapted, central retina; (◑) light adapted to 0.55 mL, 7° nasal retina; (◐) light adapted to 0.55 mL, central retina. Data obtained with a 42-min test field at an exposure duration of 4 msec. The effective entrance pupil was 4 mm in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral-sensitivity data for subject D.M. Test conditions same as in Fig. 3. Also shown are the results for central measurements obtained with a background luminance of 0.055 mL (⦶). Details in text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dark-adaptation data for subject D.M. obtained from (A) peripheral and (B) central retinal regions after 7-min light adaptation to 2800 mL. The dashed lines show the results for normal subjects.