Abstract

An anomaloscope was designed so that the full amounts of its red and green primaries could be adjusted to match for a protanope. After a protanope had made that adjustment, Rayleigh matches of red–green mixtures to yellow were made by a device in which the same percentage of one primary was subtracted from the mixture as was added of the other. The instrument was used to study the proposition that protanomaly is an intermediate form of protanopia, based upon the presence in the protanomalous trichromat of a diluted form of erythrolabe, which is assumed to be absent altogether in the protanope. The technique was to generate artificial protanopia in normal subjects by adaptation to very strong red light, and then to record their Rayleigh matches during subsequent regeneration. The results indicate that something more than dilution of erythrolabe is involved in protanomaly.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Rayleigh, Nature (London) 25, 64 (1871).
  2. W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 3614, 45 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 345 (1963).
  5. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 24 (1965).
  6. H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 56 (1965).
  7. W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947), p. 299.
  8. H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 31 (1963).
  9. W. D. Wright, Ref. 7, p. 309.
  10. G. Wald, Science 145, 1016 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. J. D. Dartnall, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 339–344.
  12. G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).
  13. W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 38 (1965).

1965 (3)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 24 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 56 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 38 (1965).

1964 (3)

G. Wald, Science 145, 1016 (1964).
[Crossref]

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 3614, 45 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 345 (1963).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 31 (1963).

1953 (1)

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).

1871 (1)

Rayleigh, Nature (London) 25, 64 (1871).

Baker, H. D.

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 56 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 31 (1963).

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).

Brown, P. K.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 3614, 45 (1964).
[Crossref]

Dartnall, H. J. D.

H. J. D. Dartnall, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 339–344.

Dobelle, W. H.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacNichol, E. F.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, W. B.

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Nature (London) 25, 64 (1871).

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 24 (1965).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 38 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 56 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 31 (1963).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 345 (1963).

Wald, G.

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 3614, 45 (1964).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 145, 1016 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, Ref. 7, p. 309.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947), p. 299.

J. Physiol. (6)

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 345 (1963).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 24 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 56 (1965).

H. D. Baker and W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 168, 31 (1963).

G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 122, 332 (1953).

W. A. H. Rushton, J. Physiol. 176, 38 (1965).

Nature (London) (1)

Rayleigh, Nature (London) 25, 64 (1871).

Science (3)

W. B. Marks, W. H. Dobelle, and E. F. MacNichol, Science 143, 1181 (1964).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Brown and G. Wald, Science 144, 3614, 45 (1964).
[Crossref]

G. Wald, Science 145, 1016 (1964).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

H. J. D. Dartnall, in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 339–344.

W. D. Wright, Ref. 7, p. 309.

W. D. Wright, Researches on Normal and Defective Colour Vision (C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 1947), p. 299.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the apparatus. M is a Hilger monochromator, WY is a neutral wedge in the yellow beam, WR is a neutral wedge in the red mixture-beam, G is a 530-mμ interference filter, R is an Illford No. 608 red filter, p1 and p2 are crossed polarizers, and P is a polarizer rotated to select the proportions of the red–green mixture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between mixtures of red and green primaries required by three normal subjects (lower curve) and one protanomalous subject (upper curve) in order to match six intermediate wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes in the percentage of red in the red–green mixture which matches an orange-yellow of 605-mμ wavelength following complete bleaching of the red pigment. The black points at the end of the curves indicate the match as prior to the bleach for each of the three normal subjects whose curves are shown. The inverted black triangle represents the match of a protanomalous subject, and appears to be too high to form a beginning point of the curves. The points on the curves are single settings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Changes in the percentage of the red primary in the mixture which matches each of six wavelengths, following a complete bleach of the red pigment in one of the normal subjects of Fig. 3. The red-primary percentages which the protanomalous subject used to match each wavelength are shown on the left as black triangles. The matches of the normal subject before bleaching are shown on the right as black circles.