Abstract

This paper presents the results of measurements by the Sénarmont compensator method of the dc electro-optic coefficients at a wavelength of 6328 Å and observations of electro-optic modulation at radio frequencies in single-domain crystals of lithium niobate (LiNbO3), a trigonal crystal of point group 3m. Tables of electro-optic properties and measurements are included, as well as a series of optical interference figures for various static field conditions. The magnitudes of the dc coefficients were found to be r22=2.0×10−7 cm/statvolt and |0.9r33r13|=5.2×10−7 cm/statvolt.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Nassau and H. J. Levinstein, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 69 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Bailey, thesis, Bristol (1952); Y. Shiozaki and T. Mitsui, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1057 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. A. Ballman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 112 (1965); S. A. Fedulov, Z. D. Shapiro, and P. B. Ladyvhenskii, Kristallografiia 10, 268 (1965); K. Nassau, H. J. Levinstein, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 228 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1960), p. 286.
  6. Ref. 5, pp. 124, 247.
  7. G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
    [Crossref]

1965 (3)

K. Nassau and H. J. Levinstein, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 69 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ballman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 112 (1965); S. A. Fedulov, Z. D. Shapiro, and P. B. Ladyvhenskii, Kristallografiia 10, 268 (1965); K. Nassau, H. J. Levinstein, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 228 (1965).
[Crossref]

E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
[Crossref]

1964 (2)

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Bailey, P.

P. Bailey, thesis, Bristol (1952); Y. Shiozaki and T. Mitsui, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1057 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ballman, A. A.

A. A. Ballman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 112 (1965); S. A. Fedulov, Z. D. Shapiro, and P. B. Ladyvhenskii, Kristallografiia 10, 268 (1965); K. Nassau, H. J. Levinstein, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 228 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

Bond, W. L.

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

Lenzo, P. V.

E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
[Crossref]

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

Levinstein, H. J.

K. Nassau and H. J. Levinstein, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 69 (1965).
[Crossref]

Miller, Robert C.

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Nassau, K.

E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
[Crossref]

K. Nassau and H. J. Levinstein, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 69 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1960), p. 286.

Peterson, G. E.

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

Savage, A.

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

Spencer, E. G.

E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Letters (4)

G. E. Peterson, A. A. Ballman, P. V. Lenzo, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 62 (1964).
[Crossref]

K. Nassau and H. J. Levinstein, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 69 (1965).
[Crossref]

G. D. Boyd, Robert C. Miller, K. Nassau, W. L. Bond, and A. Savage, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 234 (1964).
[Crossref]

E. G. Spencer, P. V. Lenzo, and K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 67 (1965); IEEE J. Quantum Electronics QE-2, 69 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. A. Ballman, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 48, 112 (1965); S. A. Fedulov, Z. D. Shapiro, and P. B. Ladyvhenskii, Kristallografiia 10, 268 (1965); K. Nassau, H. J. Levinstein, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 228 (1965).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1960), p. 286.

Ref. 5, pp. 124, 247.

P. Bailey, thesis, Bristol (1952); Y. Shiozaki and T. Mitsui, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1057 (1963).
[Crossref]

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical interference figures with light propagated in the x3 direction and static field applied in the x2 direction. The principal axes of the index ellipsoid coincide with the crystallographic axes (x1,x2,x3). (a) No field applied. (b), (c), (d) 1000, 2000, 3000 V dc, respectively. (e), (f), (g) 1000, 2000, 3000 V dc (polarity reversed).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Electro-optic properties of LiNbO3 (class 3m). In these expressions r512 terms have been deleted since they appear as second-order effects. l=optical path length in the crystal, d=thickness in field direction, V=Ed=applied voltage, n0=ordinary index of refraction, ne=extraordinary index of refraction.

Tables Icon

Table II Direct current electro-optic measurements in LiNbO3 at λ0=6328 Å.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( r i j ) = ( 0 - r 22 r 13 0 r 22 r 13 0 0 r 33 0 r 51 0 r 51 0 0 - r 22 0 0 ) ,
( n 0 - 2 - r 22 E 2 + r 13 E 3 ) x 1 2 + ( n 0 - 2 + r 22 E 2 + r 13 E 3 ) x 2 2 + ( n e - 2 + r 33 E 3 ) x 3 2 + 2 ( - r 22 E 1 ) x 1 x 2 + 2 ( r 51 E 2 ) x 2 x 3 + 2 ( r 51 E 1 ) x 3 x 1 = 1 ,
tan 2 Ψ = cot θ = E 1 / E 2 ;             Ψ = 45° - θ / 2.