Abstract

The change of the optical path length in laser rods, under the process of flash optical pumping, depends on the temperature increase of the laser material due to an absorption of pump and laser radiation, on stress-optical effects, and on the varying population of the levels of the active ions. A quantitative comparison of these three effects has shown that the change of the optical path-length is predominantly determined by temperature variations. Thermal effects have been experimentally investigated by an interferometric technique. The dependence of the optical path-length variations within the pumping period on pump energy, flash time, pumping arrangement, geometrical configuration, and doping concentration of the laser rod is analyzed for ruby and Nd<sup>+++</sup> doped glass laser rods.

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  1. G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell Systems Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).
  2. A. G. Fox and T. Li, Proc. IRE 51, 80 (1963).
  3. R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 94 (1965).
  4. H. Welling, C. J. Bickart, and H. G. Andresen, IEEE Quant. Electron. 1, 223 (1965).
  5. U. J. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 259 (1964).
  6. A. E. Blume and K. F. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 3, 527 (1964).
  7. L. G. Komai and W. R. Sooy, Hughes Aircraft Company (private communication).
  8. B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1960), p. 244.
  9. R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publication, Inc., New York, 1953), 1st ed., p. 459.
  10. J. E. Geusic and H. E. D. Scovil, Bell Systems Tech. J. 41, 1371 (1962).
  11. T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
  12. Ground with 240 diamond wheel.
  13. N. F. Borrelli and M. L. Charters, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2172 (1965).
  14. C. H. Cooke, J. McKenna, and J. G. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 957 (1964).
  15. C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).
  16. J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 2, 303 (1963).
  17. W. R. Sooy and M. L. Stitch, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1713 (1963).
  18. J. C. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 963 (1964).
  19. G. Lampis, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1467 (1964).
  20. C. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 1, 745 (1962).
  21. C. Svelto and M. Di Domenico, Appl. Opt. 2, 431 (1963).
  22. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 377.

Andresen, H. G.

H. Welling, C. J. Bickart, and H. G. Andresen, IEEE Quant. Electron. 1, 223 (1965).

Asswa, C. K.

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Bickart, C. J.

H. Welling, C. J. Bickart, and H. G. Andresen, IEEE Quant. Electron. 1, 223 (1965).

Blume, A. E.

A. E. Blume and K. F. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 3, 527 (1964).

Boley, B. A.

B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1960), p. 244.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 377.

Borrelli, N. F.

N. F. Borrelli and M. L. Charters, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2172 (1965).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell Systems Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Charters, M. L.

N. F. Borrelli and M. L. Charters, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2172 (1965).

Cooke, C. H.

C. H. Cooke, J. McKenna, and J. G. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 957 (1964).

D’Haenens, I. J.

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Devlin, C. E.

C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publication, Inc., New York, 1953), 1st ed., p. 459.

Domenico, M. Di

C. Svelto and M. Di Domenico, Appl. Opt. 2, 431 (1963).

Evtuhov, V.

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Proc. IRE 51, 80 (1963).

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic and H. E. D. Scovil, Bell Systems Tech. J. 41, 1371 (1962).

Gordon, J. P.

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell Systems Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

Hoskins, R. H.

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Komai, L. G.

L. G. Komai and W. R. Sooy, Hughes Aircraft Company (private communication).

Lampis, G.

G. Lampis, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1467 (1964).

Li, T.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Proc. IRE 51, 80 (1963).

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Maio, A. D.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 94 (1965).

May, A. D.

C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).

McKenna, J.

C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).

C. H. Cooke, J. McKenna, and J. G. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 957 (1964).

J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 2, 303 (1963).

Sacchi, C. A.

G. Lampis, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1467 (1964).

Schawlow, A. L.

C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).

Schmidt, U. J.

U. J. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 259 (1964).

Scovil, H. E. D.

J. E. Geusic and H. E. D. Scovil, Bell Systems Tech. J. 41, 1371 (1962).

Skinner, J. C.

J. C. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 963 (1964).

Skinner, J. G.

C. H. Cooke, J. McKenna, and J. G. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 957 (1964).

Sooy, W. R.

L. G. Komai and W. R. Sooy, Hughes Aircraft Company (private communication).

W. R. Sooy and M. L. Stitch, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1713 (1963).

Stickley, C. M.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 94 (1965).

Stitch, M. L.

W. R. Sooy and M. L. Stitch, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1713 (1963).

Svelto, C.

C. Svelto and M. Di Domenico, Appl. Opt. 2, 431 (1963).

C. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 1, 745 (1962).

Svelto, O.

G. Lampis, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1467 (1964).

Tittel, K. F.

A. E. Blume and K. F. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 3, 527 (1964).

Townsend, R. L.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 94 (1965).

Weiner, J. H.

B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1960), p. 244.

Welling, H.

H. Welling, C. J. Bickart, and H. G. Andresen, IEEE Quant. Electron. 1, 223 (1965).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 377.

Other (22)

G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell Systems Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961).

A. G. Fox and T. Li, Proc. IRE 51, 80 (1963).

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, Appl. Phys. Letters 7, 94 (1965).

H. Welling, C. J. Bickart, and H. G. Andresen, IEEE Quant. Electron. 1, 223 (1965).

U. J. Schmidt, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 259 (1964).

A. E. Blume and K. F. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 3, 527 (1964).

L. G. Komai and W. R. Sooy, Hughes Aircraft Company (private communication).

B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1960), p. 244.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Interscience Publication, Inc., New York, 1953), 1st ed., p. 459.

J. E. Geusic and H. E. D. Scovil, Bell Systems Tech. J. 41, 1371 (1962).

T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D'Haenens, C. K. Asswa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).

Ground with 240 diamond wheel.

N. F. Borrelli and M. L. Charters, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2172 (1965).

C. H. Cooke, J. McKenna, and J. G. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 957 (1964).

C. E. Devlin, J. McKenna, A. D. May, and A. L. Schawlow, Appl. Opt. 1, 11 (1962).

J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 2, 303 (1963).

W. R. Sooy and M. L. Stitch, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1713 (1963).

J. C. Skinner, Appl. Opt. 3, 963 (1964).

G. Lampis, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 3, 1467 (1964).

C. Svelto, Appl. Opt. 1, 745 (1962).

C. Svelto and M. Di Domenico, Appl. Opt. 2, 431 (1963).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1964), 2nd ed., p. 377.

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