Abstract

A relatively small gray sample looks lighter (darker) when it is placed on darker (lighter) background. This phenomenon is an example of the well-known contrast effect. The purpose of this paper is to make a quantitative determination of the effect, and to derive a formula for it.

For any given gray sample and gray surround on the left side, the observer was instructed to choose, for the different gray surround on the right, a different gray sample appearing as light as that on the left. It was found that sample lightness changes rapidly with reflectance when sample reflectance is close to that of the background. This effect was named the “crispening effect.”

Several models (von Kries coefficient law, Hurvich–Jameson induction) were tried, but none of them reproduced the experimentally discovered crispening effect. A fairly successful empirical formula was developed by adding a term for the crispening effect to the formula for the induction theory.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. V. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. Translated from the 3rd German edition, J. P. C. Southall, Ed. (The Optical Society of America, 1924; reprinted by Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 231.
  2. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 46 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. C. Granville, D. Nickerson, and C. E. Foss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 376 (1943).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. A. Nagel, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.
  5. T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1964).

1964 (1)

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1964).

1961 (1)

1943 (1)

Foss, C. E.

Granville, W. C.

Helmholtz, H. V.

H. V. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. Translated from the 3rd German edition, J. P. C. Southall, Ed. (The Optical Society of America, 1924; reprinted by Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 231.

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

Kaneko, T.

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1964).

Nickerson, D.

von Kries, J.

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. A. Nagel, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.

Acta Chromatica (1)

T. Kaneko, Acta Chromatica 1, 103 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (2)

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen,” in Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, W. A. Nagel, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1905), Vol. 3, pp. 109–282.

H. V. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. Translated from the 3rd German edition, J. P. C. Southall, Ed. (The Optical Society of America, 1924; reprinted by Dover Publ., Inc., New York, 1964), Vol. 2, p. 231.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance Y2 of matching samples found by observer T to appear as light as the standard sample of reflectance Y1. Symbols beside each curve stand for Munsell values of each background pair. The order of the two Munsell-value notations coincide with the position of standard and second backgrounds. The uncertainty of the observations is indicated by the distances between the points of each pair (××,○○,●●), one of which refers to a matching sample slightly lighter than the standard and the other, slightly darker.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The effect of average Munsell value of background pair on reflectance of the matching sample. Background pairs are chosen to have the same Munsell value difference 4 but of progressively higher average Munsell value. Curves are fitted to the plotted points by eye. Data points for N3–N7 and N7–N3 confirm those shown in Fig. 1, and are omitted for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A graphical representation of reflectance of matching sample (Y2) predicted by the induction theory applied to reflectance of samples and background. The total amount of induction C(Yb2Yb1) is shown beside each curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A graphical representation of reflectance of matching sample (Y2) predicted by the von Kries coefficient law with a weight factor n=1.6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A graphical representation of reflectance of matching sample (Y2) predicted by the induction theory applied to the Munsell-value function. The total amount of induction C(Vb2Vb1) is changed by steps of 0.5.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observations for four observers (H,J,T,Y) for background pairs of same average Munsell value. Observed points formerly plotted under the 45° line are plotted in upper area from the line, thus × is for N1–N9 and N9–N1, ○ is for N3–N7 and N7–N3, and ● is for N4–N6 and N6–N4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observations for four observers (H,J,T,Y) for background pairs of same background value difference but different average Munsell value. × is for N5–N9 and N9–N5 and ● is for N1–N5 and N5–N1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graphical method of obtaining the Munsell value of a sample which looks as light as a given background pair. The labels for the curves L1(Vb1Vb2) and L2(Vb1Vb2) mean that the curves represent lightness L1 or L2 of each sample for the given pair of backgrounds with Munsell values Vb1 and Vb2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Empirical simulation of the pooled observations of observers H and T, for the background pairs of same average Munsell value. The lightness-prediction formula is: L i = V i - 0.35 V b i + 0.5 V ¯ b [ ( V i - V b i ) / 1.5 ] e - V i - V b i / 1.5 i = 1 , 2             V ¯ b = ( V b 1 + V b 2 ) / 2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Empirical simulation of the pooled observations of observers H and T, for background pairs of same Munsell-value difference with different average value. The lightness prediction formula is the same as in Fig. 9. Note that the average background value V ¯ b is different for the background pair of N1–N5 and N5–N9; accordingly, formula (13) or (14) requires two different LV curves for the N5 background, one applying for the background pair N1–N5 and the other for N5–N9.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Empirical simulation of the observations of observer J. The lightness-prediction formula is: L i = V i - 0.30 V b i + 0.4 V ¯ b [ ( V i - V b i ) / 1.4 ] e - V i - V b i / 1.4 .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Empirical simulation of the observations of observer Y. The lightness-prediction formula is: L i = V i - 0.20 V b i + 0.15 [ ( V i - V b i ) / 0.8 ] e - V i - V b i / 0.8 .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Constants required for simulation of the observations of the five observers.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L 1 = f ( Y 1 - C Y b 1 )
L 2 = f ( Y 2 - C Y b 2 ) ,
Y 1 - C Y b 1 = Y 2 - C Y b 2 ,
Y 2 = Y 1 + C ( Y b 2 - Y b 1 ) .
L 1 = f [ Y 1 / ( n Y b 1 + Y b 2 ) ] ,
L 2 = f [ Y 2 / ( n Y b 2 + Y b 1 ) ] ,
Y 2 = Y 1 ( n Y b 2 + Y b 1 ) / ( n Y b 1 + Y b 2 ) .
L 1 = V 1 - C V b 1
L 2 = V 2 - C V b 2 ,
V 2 = V 1 + C ( V b 2 - V b 1 ) .
L = V - C V b + f ( V , V b , V ¯ b ) .
f ( V , V b , V ¯ b ) = C 2 V ¯ b [ ( V - V b ) / C 3 ] e - V - V b / C 3 ,
L 1 = V 1 - C 1 V b 1 + C 2 V ¯ b [ ( V 1 - V b 1 ) / C 3 ] e - V 1 - V b 1 / C 3
L 2 = V 2 - C 1 V b 2 + C 2 V ¯ b [ ( V 2 - V b 2 ) / C 3 ] e - V 2 - V b 2 / C 3 ;
L i = V i - 0.35 V b i + 0.5 V ¯ b [ ( V i - V b i ) / 1.5 ] e - V i - V b i / 1.5 i = 1 , 2             V ¯ b = ( V b 1 + V b 2 ) / 2.
L i = V i - 0.30 V b i + 0.4 V ¯ b [ ( V i - V b i ) / 1.4 ] e - V i - V b i / 1.4 .
L i = V i - 0.20 V b i + 0.15 [ ( V i - V b i ) / 0.8 ] e - V i - V b i / 0.8 .