Abstract

The transmission spectra of tin films ranging in thickness from 680 to 1690 Å have been studied in detail in the spectral range 1000–80 Å, utilizing both photoelectric and photographic detection. The photoelectric results, using a multiline source, give measured values of transmittance, while the photographic results, using the pure continuum radiated by the NBS 180-MeV electron synchrotron, show the behavior of the transmittance curves between measured data points. These new measurements, giving continuous and extended information, allow an interpretation of the transmission characteristics of tin in terms of atomic and solid-state parameters. In particular, the photographic data locate the NIV,V x-ray edges with increased accuracy [NV = 23.8(±0.1) eV; NIV = 24.9(±0.1) eV]. Of practical importance, a film of thickness 680 Å has a transmittance of over 20% from 700 to 525 Å. Of theoretical significance is a broad absorption feature centered near 190 Å, due to the high oscillator strength for transition of the 4d electron to continuum states of f symmetry.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, and G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. R. Hunter, in Proc. Xth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale (Spartan Books, Washington, D. C., 1963), p. 247.
  3. K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  4. Our estimate of the limits of error.
  5. D. Bohm and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. 82, 625 (1951); Phys. Rev. 85, 338 (1952); Phys. Rev. 92, 609 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1959), p. 623.
  7. H. Mendlowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 739 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Haglund, Arkiv Mat. Astron. Fys. 28A, 1 (1942).
  9. Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 16, 253 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Cooper, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 762 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).
  12. D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 760 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. J. McGuire, Ph. D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (1965).
  14. A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

1965 (1)

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (4)

J. Cooper, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 762 (1964).
[Crossref]

A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).

D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 760 (1964).
[Crossref]

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

1960 (1)

1959 (1)

1955 (1)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 16, 253 (1955).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

D. Bohm and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. 82, 625 (1951); Phys. Rev. 85, 338 (1952); Phys. Rev. 92, 609 (1953).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

P. Haglund, Arkiv Mat. Astron. Fys. 28A, 1 (1942).

Bohm, D.

D. Bohm and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. 82, 625 (1951); Phys. Rev. 85, 338 (1952); Phys. Rev. 92, 609 (1953).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1959), p. 623.

Britov, I. A.

A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

Cauchois, Y.

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 16, 253 (1955).
[Crossref]

Codling, K.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380 (1965).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J.

J. Cooper, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 762 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ederer, D. L.

D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 760 (1964).
[Crossref]

Haglund, P.

P. Haglund, Arkiv Mat. Astron. Fys. 28A, 1 (1942).

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, in Proc. Xth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale (Spartan Books, Washington, D. C., 1963), p. 247.

Lukirskii, A. P.

A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

Madden, R. P.

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380 (1965).
[Crossref]

McGuire, E. J.

E. J. McGuire, Ph. D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (1965).

Mendlowitz, H.

Pines, D.

D. Bohm and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. 82, 625 (1951); Phys. Rev. 85, 338 (1952); Phys. Rev. 92, 609 (1953).
[Crossref]

Rustgi, O. P.

Walker, W. C.

Weissler, G. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1959), p. 623.

Zimkina, T. M.

A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

Arkiv Mat. Astron. Fys. (1)

P. Haglund, Arkiv Mat. Astron. Fys. 28A, 1 (1942).

Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. (1)

A. P. Lukirskii, T. M. Zimkina, and I. A. Britov, Izvest. Akad. Nauk, SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 28, 772 (1964).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Codling and R. P. Madden, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 380 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Radium (1)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 16, 253 (1955).
[Crossref]

Opt. i Spectroskopiya (1)

A. P. Lukirskii, I. A. Britov, and T. M. Zimkina, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 17, 438 (1964) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 17, 234 (1964).

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. Bohm and D. Pines, Phys. Rev. 82, 625 (1951); Phys. Rev. 85, 338 (1952); Phys. Rev. 92, 609 (1953).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (2)

J. Cooper, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 762 (1964).
[Crossref]

D. L. Ederer, Phys. Rev. Letters 13, 760 (1964).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

E. J. McGuire, Ph. D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (1965).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Ltd., London, 1959), p. 623.

W. R. Hunter, in Proc. Xth Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale (Spartan Books, Washington, D. C., 1963), p. 247.

Our estimate of the limits of error.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The transmission spectrum of a tin film, approximately 750 Å thick, in the spectral region 600–80 Å, obtained by utilizing the pure continuum radiated by the NBS 180-MeV electron synchrotron. Note in particular the NIV,V edges of tin near 500 Å, also a region of high absorption from 250–120 Å, and one of considerable transmission near 90 Å. (The photograph is a positive print; therefore black denotes absorption.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A densitometer trace of the transmission spectrum of the tin film 750 Å thick in the 600–450 Å region. The NIV,V edges of tin are observed in detail. The arrows indicate the location of the NIV,V edges, as determined by Haglund8 from x-ray emission spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The absolute transmittance of unbacked tin films of thicknesses 1690, 860, and 680 Å, in the spectral region 900–100 Å. Of practical interest is the rather high transmittance of the 860-Å-thick film in the 750–525 Å region.