Abstract

The surface of a polycrystalline germanium film, vacuum-deposited onto a heated substrate in a narrow range of temperatures, takes on a regular structure exhibiting optical interference effects whose nature is quite sensitive to the angle at which the film is deposited. For all films deposited between 550° and 620°C, Fraunhofer diffraction effects are observed which are independent of crystalline texture. In the case of perpendicular deposition, the diffraction is nearly isotropic about the normal to the film, while in the case of deposition at an acute angle, the diffraction effects are nonisotropic and the observed optical behavior is analogous to that observed with blazed gratings; electron-microscope observations confirm these particular surfaces to be “blazed” in character. The “blue-grey” character of germanium films and the “blue haze” observed on other surfaces is explained on the basis of these results.

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  1. J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).
  2. J. E. Davey and R. H. Deiter, Phys. Chem. Glasses 4, 213 (1963).
  3. J. E. Davey and T. Pankey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2571 (1965).
  4. R. E. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 124, 1314 (1961).
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  6. S. P. Wolsky, T. R. Piwkowski, and G. Wallis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 97 (1965).
  7. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 51.
  8. L. E. Terry and J. D. Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1-11, 61C (1964).
  9. L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 331.
  10. P. M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 1185 (1965).
  11. L. C. Andrews and R. Gereth, Solid State Electron. 9, 173 (1966).
  12. H. M. Day (private communication).
  13. E. Bauer, Z. Krist. 107, 265 (1956).
  14. J. E. Davey, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 877 (1961).
  15. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 310 (1912).
  16. Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A79, 399 (1907).
  17. R. P. Madden and J. Strong, in Concepts of Classical Optics, John Strong, Ed. (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958).
  18. E. S. Barrekette and R. L. Christensen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 9, 108 (1965).
  19. H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893).
  20. R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946),
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Andrews, L. C.

L. C. Andrews and R. Gereth, Solid State Electron. 9, 173 (1966).

Barrekette, E. S.

E. S. Barrekette and R. L. Christensen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 9, 108 (1965).

Bauer, E.

E. Bauer, Z. Krist. 107, 265 (1956).

Christensen, R. L.

E. S. Barrekette and R. L. Christensen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 9, 108 (1965).

Davey, J. E.

J. E. Davey and T. Pankey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2571 (1965).

J. E. Davey, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 877 (1961).

J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).

J. E. Davey and R. H. Deiter, Phys. Chem. Glasses 4, 213 (1963).

Day, H. M.

H. M. Day (private communication).

Deiter, R. H.

J. E. Davey and R. H. Deiter, Phys. Chem. Glasses 4, 213 (1963).

Gereth, R.

L. C. Andrews and R. Gereth, Solid State Electron. 9, 173 (1966).

Grant, P. M.

P. M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 1185 (1965).

Hatcher, R. D.

R. D. Hatcher and J. H. Rohrbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 104 (1956).

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 331.

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden and J. Strong, in Concepts of Classical Optics, John Strong, Ed. (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958).

Mie, G.

G. Mie, Ann. Physik 25, 377 (1908).

Montgomery, M. D.

J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).

Morrison, R. E.

R. E. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 124, 1314 (1961).

Pankey, T.

J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).

J. E. Davey and T. Pankey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2571 (1965).

Piwkowski, T. R.

S. P. Wolsky, T. R. Piwkowski, and G. Wallis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 97 (1965).

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A79, 399 (1907).

Rohrbaugh, J. H.

R. D. Hatcher and J. H. Rohrbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 104 (1956).

Rowland, H. A.

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893).

Stamm, R. F.

R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946),

Strong, J.

R. P. Madden and J. Strong, in Concepts of Classical Optics, John Strong, Ed. (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958).

Terry, L. E.

L. E. Terry and J. D. Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1-11, 61C (1964).

Tiernan, R. J.

J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 51.

Wallis, G.

S. P. Wolsky, T. R. Piwkowski, and G. Wallis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 97 (1965).

Whalen, J. J.

R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946),

Williams, J. D.

L. E. Terry and J. D. Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1-11, 61C (1964).

Wolsky, S. P.

S. P. Wolsky, T. R. Piwkowski, and G. Wallis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 97 (1965).

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 310 (1912).

Other (21)

J. E. Davey, R. J. Tiernan, T. Pankey, and M. D. Montgomery, Solid State Electron. 6, 205 (1963).

J. E. Davey and R. H. Deiter, Phys. Chem. Glasses 4, 213 (1963).

J. E. Davey and T. Pankey, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2571 (1965).

R. E. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 124, 1314 (1961).

G. Mie, Ann. Physik 25, 377 (1908).

S. P. Wolsky, T. R. Piwkowski, and G. Wallis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2, 97 (1965).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 51.

L. E. Terry and J. D. Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 1-11, 61C (1964).

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1958), p. 331.

P. M. Grant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 10, 1185 (1965).

L. C. Andrews and R. Gereth, Solid State Electron. 9, 173 (1966).

H. M. Day (private communication).

E. Bauer, Z. Krist. 107, 265 (1956).

J. E. Davey, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 877 (1961).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 23, 310 (1912).

Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) A79, 399 (1907).

R. P. Madden and J. Strong, in Concepts of Classical Optics, John Strong, Ed. (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958).

E. S. Barrekette and R. L. Christensen, IBM J. Res. Dev. 9, 108 (1965).

H. A. Rowland, Phil. Mag. 35, 397 (1893).

R. F. Stamm and J. J. Whalen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 2 (1946),

R. D. Hatcher and J. H. Rohrbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 104 (1956).

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