Abstract

The present status of accomplishment, the remaining problems, and the trends in the present activity in the field of optical spectroscopy are reviewed in the historical perspective. The discussion covers techniques of production, recording and evaluation of spectra, and the results regarding, especially, the term structure of atoms in various stages of ionization. Applications of the results to the interpretation of astronomical spectra, including in particular the vacuum-ultraviolet solar spectrum, are also discussed, and some of the laboratory work that is most urgently needed for this and other purposes is pointed out.

© 1966 Optical Society of America

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

5-m Czerny–Turner spectrograph at Lund.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

10-m vacuum spectrograph built by Jarrell-Ash for the Bureau of Standards.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One-meter grazing-incidence spectrograph designed in 1928 by Professor M. Siegbahn at Uppsala.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

5-m grazing-incidence spectrograph designed by Siegbahn and used since 1935.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Copper spectrum from 138 to 149 Å taken with the spectrograph in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Iron spectrum from 150 to 190 Å obtained with the spectrograph in Fig. 4.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra of nitrogen taken by Hallin with the source in Fig. 7.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectra of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the vacuum ultraviolet produced by the theta-pinch source.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption spectrum of helium around 200 Å obtained by Madden and Codling at NBS by use of synchrotron radiation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

A section of the solar spectrum around 180 Å taken 20 Sept. 1963 with a rocket spectrograph by Dr. Tousey and his associates at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D. C.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Term system of Mg ii (P. Risberg, Arkiv Fysik 9, 483).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Ritz diagram of Rydberg series in Mg ii (P. Risberg, Arkiv Fysik 9, 483).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Survey of all configurations containing 2s and 2p electrons [B. Edlén, Handbuch der Phyisk, Edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, 1964), Vol. 27, p. 176].