Abstract

An experiment was performed to determine the effect of exposure time on color discrimination. Five durations ranging from 0.02 to 5 sec were used. Discrimination continued to improve as exposure was lengthened. Some possible explanations for these results are offered.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for instance, the following: L. A. Jones, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63 (1917); H. Laurens and W. F. Hamilton, Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547 (1923); D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 72 (1932); E. P. T. Tyndall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 23, 15 (1933); W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 46, 459 (1934); M. H. Siegel and F. L. Dimmick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1071 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. H. Siegel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 874 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, edited by R. Jung and H. Kornhuber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).
  4. R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).
  5. C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935); R. C. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952); G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 118, 135 (1952);R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956); B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958); R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Tech Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), pp. 739–765.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. L. Dimmick and J. C. Karl, J. Exptl. Psychol. 13, 365 (1930); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 189 (1955); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 125 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 655 (1937); J. I. Niven and R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 738 (1944); K. E. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 567 (1949); L. C. Martin, D. J. Day, and W. Kaniowski, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 34, 89 (1950).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Ikeda and R. M. Boynton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 697 (1962); W. R. Biersdorf and A. M. Granda, ibid.52, 1402 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Farnsworth, in Visual Problems of Colour (Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York1961), Vol. II, pp. 65–78.
  10. M. H. Siegel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1067 (1962).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. C. Cornsweet, and T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

1962 (2)

1953 (2)

1951 (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).

1937 (1)

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 655 (1937); J. I. Niven and R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 738 (1944); K. E. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 567 (1949); L. C. Martin, D. J. Day, and W. Kaniowski, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 34, 89 (1950).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935); R. C. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952); G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 118, 135 (1952);R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956); B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958); R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Tech Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), pp. 739–765.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1930 (1)

F. L. Dimmick and J. C. Karl, J. Exptl. Psychol. 13, 365 (1930); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 189 (1955); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 125 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1917 (1)

Boynton, R. M.

Cook, C.

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 655 (1937); J. I. Niven and R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 738 (1944); K. E. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 567 (1949); L. C. Martin, D. J. Day, and W. Kaniowski, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 34, 89 (1950).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, J. C.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick and J. C. Karl, J. Exptl. Psychol. 13, 365 (1930); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 189 (1955); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 125 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farnsworth, D.

D. Farnsworth, in Visual Problems of Colour (Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York1961), Vol. II, pp. 65–78.

Graham, C. H.

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 655 (1937); J. I. Niven and R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 738 (1944); K. E. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 567 (1949); L. C. Martin, D. J. Day, and W. Kaniowski, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 34, 89 (1950).
[Crossref]

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935); R. C. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952); G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 118, 135 (1952);R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956); B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958); R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Tech Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), pp. 739–765.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, edited by R. Jung and H. Kornhuber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

Ikeda, M.

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 552 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, edited by R. Jung and H. Kornhuber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

Jones, L. A.

Karl, J. C.

F. L. Dimmick and J. C. Karl, J. Exptl. Psychol. 13, 365 (1930); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 189 (1955); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 125 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margaria, R.

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935); R. C. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952); G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 118, 135 (1952);R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956); B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958); R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Tech Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), pp. 739–765.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratliff, F.

Riggs, L. A.

Siegel, M. H.

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

C. H. Graham and R. Margaria, Am. J. Physiol. 113, 299 (1935); R. C. Rouse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 626 (1952); G. S. Brindley, J. Physiol. 118, 135 (1952);R. M. Herrick, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 49, 437 (1956); B. Hillman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 422 (1958); R. M. Boynton, in Sensory Communication, edited by W. A. Rosenblith (Tech Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961), pp. 739–765.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

C. H. Graham and C. Cook, Am. J. Psychol. 49, 655 (1937); J. I. Niven and R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34, 738 (1944); K. E. Baker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 567 (1949); L. C. Martin, D. J. Day, and W. Kaniowski, Brit. J. Opthalmol. 34, 89 (1950).
[Crossref]

J. Exptl. Psychol. (1)

F. L. Dimmick and J. C. Karl, J. Exptl. Psychol. 13, 365 (1930); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 189 (1955); R. H. Brown, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 125 (1958).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 113, 115 (1951).

Other (2)

D. Farnsworth, in Visual Problems of Colour (Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York1961), Vol. II, pp. 65–78.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson in The Visual System: Neurophysiology and Psychophysics, edited by R. Jung and H. Kornhuber (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1961).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mean sensitivity as a function of exposure time in seconds. The closed circles represent individual mean standard deviations at one exposure time. The open circles represent the mean value for all observers at one exposure time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interobserver variability as a function of exposure time in seconds. The open circles of this figure were obtained by calculation of the standard deviation of the individual mean sensitivity values, represented as closed circles in Fig. 1.