Abstract

A small cantilever-type piezoelectric accelerometer has been fixed to a contact lens. By means of one or two electrical integrations of the amplified output voltage, angular acceleration, velocity, or displacement of the moving eye can be measured as functions of time. The sensitivity is high enough to record involuntary saccades and tremor during fixation; the bandwidth of the system under these conditions is 200 cps. The high sensitivity is maintained for all positions of the eye, so that during saccades and other fast eye movements, the fine detail, particularly of the small overshoots, can be examined.

For study of the characteristics of the extraocular muscle–eyeball system, sinusoidal or transient eye movements caused by applying vibrational or steplike forces to the eye are recorded. These forces are applied by the action of an electromagnet on a piece of magnetic material fixed to the contact lens. Forced eye movements are also induced by applying either steady vibrations or impulsive forces to the head. Two recording accelerometers are then used, one is on the contact lens, and the second is fixed to a bite bar. Experiments have been made with human subjects and with dogs. Typical recordings are discussed.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Davson, The Eye (Academic Press, New York and London, 1962), 1st ed., Vol. 3, p. 63.
  2. E. R. Powsner and K. S. Lion, Electronics 23, 96 (1950).
  3. J. G. Thomas, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 7 (1958).
  4. Available as “Multimorph” from Brush Company Ltd., Southampton, England.
  5. J. G. Thomas, Nature 189, 842 (1961).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Type V 47 vibrator. Goodmans Industries Ltd., England.
  7. S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).
  8. G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 710 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. Wolff, The Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit (H. K. Lewis and Company Ltd., London, 1958), 4th ed., p. 228.
  10. D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (London) 174, 245 (1964).
  11. V. Zakian, “A Study of the Dynamics of Eye Rotation,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales (1963, unpublished).
  12. R. R. Coermann, Jahrb. Deut. Luftfahrtforschung 3, 111 (1938).
  13. K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. T. Goldberg and R. S. Jampel, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 68, 32 (1962).
    [Crossref]

1964 (2)

S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).

D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (London) 174, 245 (1964).

1962 (1)

R. T. Goldberg and R. S. Jampel, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 68, 32 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

J. G. Thomas, Nature 189, 842 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

J. G. Thomas, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 7 (1958).

1954 (1)

G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 710 (1954).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

E. R. Powsner and K. S. Lion, Electronics 23, 96 (1950).

1938 (1)

R. R. Coermann, Jahrb. Deut. Luftfahrtforschung 3, 111 (1938).

Coermann, R. R.

R. R. Coermann, Jahrb. Deut. Luftfahrtforschung 3, 111 (1938).

Davson, H.

H. Davson, The Eye (Academic Press, New York and London, 1962), 1st ed., Vol. 3, p. 63.

Gaarder, K.

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, R. T.

R. T. Goldberg and R. S. Jampel, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 68, 32 (1962).
[Crossref]

Jampel, R. S.

R. T. Goldberg and R. S. Jampel, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 68, 32 (1962).
[Crossref]

Lion, K. S.

E. R. Powsner and K. S. Lion, Electronics 23, 96 (1950).

Powsner, E. R.

E. R. Powsner and K. S. Lion, Electronics 23, 96 (1950).

Robinson, D. A.

D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (London) 174, 245 (1964).

Stone, S. L.

S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).

Thomas, J. G.

S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).

J. G. Thomas, Nature 189, 842 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Thomas, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 7 (1958).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 710 (1954).
[Crossref]

Wolff, E.

E. Wolff, The Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit (H. K. Lewis and Company Ltd., London, 1958), 4th ed., p. 228.

Zakian, V.

S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).

V. Zakian, “A Study of the Dynamics of Eye Rotation,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales (1963, unpublished).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (2)

G. Westheimer, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 52, 710 (1954).
[Crossref]

R. T. Goldberg and R. S. Jampel, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 68, 32 (1962).
[Crossref]

Electronics (1)

E. R. Powsner and K. S. Lion, Electronics 23, 96 (1950).

J. Physiol. (London) (3)

J. G. Thomas, J. Physiol. (London) 141, 7 (1958).

S. L. Stone, J. G. Thomas, and V. Zakian, J. Physiol. (London) 172, 63 (1964).

D. A. Robinson, J. Physiol. (London) 174, 245 (1964).

Jahrb. Deut. Luftfahrtforschung (1)

R. R. Coermann, Jahrb. Deut. Luftfahrtforschung 3, 111 (1938).

Nature (1)

J. G. Thomas, Nature 189, 842 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

V. Zakian, “A Study of the Dynamics of Eye Rotation,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Wales (1963, unpublished).

Type V 47 vibrator. Goodmans Industries Ltd., England.

Available as “Multimorph” from Brush Company Ltd., Southampton, England.

H. Davson, The Eye (Academic Press, New York and London, 1962), 1st ed., Vol. 3, p. 63.

E. Wolff, The Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit (H. K. Lewis and Company Ltd., London, 1958), 4th ed., p. 228.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cantilever piezo-accelerometer fixed to contact lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Velocity-vs-time curves for voluntary saccades. Reading downwards: (1) abduction (2) adduction, (3) depression, (4) elevation. Extent of movement in all cases 20′. Time marks: 100 msec.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation with frequency of peak angular velocity of eye (elevation–depression movement) in response to constant-amplitude sinusoidal driving torque applied to contact lens. Unit of angular velocity 100°/sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye-velocity record in response to sinusoidal torque, applied to contact lens. Extent of vibration approximately 15′. Time marks: 100 msec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation with frequency of the ratio of peak eye velocity to peak head velocity (elevation–depression movement) in response to sinusoidal driving torque applied to head.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Velocity-vs-time curves for elevation–depression eye movements resulting from application of step forces to contact lens. Extent of movement approximately 30′. Time marks: 100 msec.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Velocity-vs-time curve for eye movement resulting from application of an impulse force to the head. Baseline displaced downwards at instant of applying the force. Time marks: 20 msec.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Velocity-vs-time record of eye movement occurring during steady fixation. Time marks: 100 msec.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Velocity-vs-time record of voluntary pendular nystagmus. Extent of movement approximately 5°. Time marks: 100 msec.