Abstract

Thresholds for Mach bands were obtained by filtering discontinuous luminance gradients until the bands disappeared. Visibility was related to two properties of the stimulus discontinuity at which the bands were seen: the change in the rate of change of luminance with respect to distance and the luminance at the discontinuity. The former clearly affects visibility. The latter also appears to affect visibility, but its influence was not always demonstrable. Light and dark bands are independently perceived. Light-band thresholds vary with exposure duration according to Bloch’s law.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Mach, The Analysis of Sensations and the Relation of the Physical to the Psychical (Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago and London, 1914), p. 216 ff.
  2. G. v. Békésy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1060 (1960); F. Ratliff and H. K. Hartline, J. Gen. Physiol. 42, 1241 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Enoch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 392 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Ratliff, H. K. Hartline, and W. H. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 110 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Mach, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 52, 303 (1865).
  7. J. P. Thomas, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1033 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Fiorentini and A. M. Ercoles, Opt. Acta 4, 150 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, and U. Keesey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 702 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (2)

1962 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

1960 (1)

1958 (1)

1957 (1)

A. Fiorentini and A. M. Ercoles, Opt. Acta 4, 150 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1865 (1)

E. Mach, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 52, 303 (1865).

Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. (1)

E. Mach, Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 52, 303 (1865).

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, Am. J. Psychol. 75, 485 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Opt. Acta (1)

A. Fiorentini and A. M. Ercoles, Opt. Acta 4, 150 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Mach, The Analysis of Sensations and the Relation of the Physical to the Psychical (Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago and London, 1914), p. 216 ff.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Appearance to subject of stimulus field is shown at upper left. Solid line in body of figure shows luminance along any horizontal in field. Dotted lines show effects of filters. Mach bands are seen at D and L.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Optical system for projecting stripe. (B) and (C), The two viewing arrangements which were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Going from bottom to top, the curves for each subject are for dark-band thresholds, light-band thresholds, and (CK and JT only) light bands of equal brightness. Background = 150 trolands for thresholds; 4.6 trolands for bands of equal brightness. Standard errors of the points, in percent, fall within these ranges: CK 2–16; JT 2–18; PK 12–25.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thresholds for light bands (upper curves) and dark bands (lower curves). Standard error of each point is shown. Background = 210 trolands.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light-band thresholds (upper figures) and difference thresholds (lower figures) as a function of exposure duration.