Abstract

The results of a series of systematic measurements of skylight polarization are presented and discussed. The measurements were made at Los Angeles during spring, 1963. A photoelectric skylight polarimeter employing ac light modulation has been employed in these measurements which were confined to the plane of the sun’s vertical. Three spectral intervals (bandwidth~150 Å) centered around 4000, 5100, and 6000 Å were studied. An attempt has been made to account for the departure of location and dispersion of the neutral points and the polarization maximum from the computed values for a purely molecular atmosphere in terms of the local turbidity. The effect of the variable reflectance of the ground on the magnitude of the polarization maxima has been included in these studies.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford University Press, London, 1950), pp. 393.
  2. Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics (Academic Press Inc., New York1956), Vol. III, pp. 43–104.
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Sekera, Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1957), Vol. XLVIII, pp. 288–328.
  4. G. V. Rozenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Usp. 3, 346 (1960)].
  5. Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 39, 285 (1933).
  6. Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 44, 157 (1935).
  7. R. Tousey and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 78 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  8. Thomas Gehrels, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1164 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. de Bary, Appl. Opt. 3, 1293 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Neuberger, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 31, 119 (1950).
  11. E. P. Clancy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 357 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. H. Sweet, Electronics 19, 105 (1946).
  13. V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zh. 37, 785 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Astron.—AJ 4, 741 (1961)].
  14. H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), pp. 49–111.
  15. Diran Deirmendjian, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol 6, 452 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  16. Muneyasu Kano, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles (1964, unpublished).
  17. K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).
  18. Z. Sekera, Meteorol. Z. 55, 337 (1938).
  19. N. N. Gorokhovskaya and et al., Actinometry, Atmospheric Optics and Nuclear Meteorology, NASA Technical Translation NASA TTF-150 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington D. C., June1964).
  20. Gerhard Dietze, Z. Meteorol. 5, 86 (1951).

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

1960 (2)

V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zh. 37, 785 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Astron.—AJ 4, 741 (1961)].

G. V. Rozenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Usp. 3, 346 (1960)].

1955 (1)

Diran Deirmendjian, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol 6, 452 (1955).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

1951 (1)

Gerhard Dietze, Z. Meteorol. 5, 86 (1951).

1950 (1)

H. Neuberger, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 31, 119 (1950).

1947 (1)

1946 (1)

M. H. Sweet, Electronics 19, 105 (1946).

1938 (1)

Z. Sekera, Meteorol. Z. 55, 337 (1938).

1935 (1)

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 44, 157 (1935).

1933 (1)

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 39, 285 (1933).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford University Press, London, 1950), pp. 393.

Clancy, E. P.

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

Dave, J. V.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

de Bary, E.

Deirmendjian, Diran

Diran Deirmendjian, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol 6, 452 (1955).
[Crossref]

Dietze, Gerhard

Gerhard Dietze, Z. Meteorol. 5, 86 (1951).

Fesenkov, V. G.

V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zh. 37, 785 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Astron.—AJ 4, 741 (1961)].

Gehrels, Thomas

Gorokhovskaya, N. N.

N. N. Gorokhovskaya and et al., Actinometry, Atmospheric Optics and Nuclear Meteorology, NASA Technical Translation NASA TTF-150 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington D. C., June1964).

Hulburt, E. O.

Kano, Muneyasu

Muneyasu Kano, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles (1964, unpublished).

Neuberger, H.

H. Neuberger, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 31, 119 (1950).

Rozenberg, G. V.

G. V. Rozenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Usp. 3, 346 (1960)].

Sekera, Z.

Z. Sekera, Meteorol. Z. 55, 337 (1938).

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 44, 157 (1935).

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 39, 285 (1933).

Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics (Academic Press Inc., New York1956), Vol. III, pp. 43–104.
[Crossref]

Z. Sekera, Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1957), Vol. XLVIII, pp. 288–328.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

Sweet, M. H.

M. H. Sweet, Electronics 19, 105 (1946).

Tousey, R.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), pp. 49–111.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol (1)

Diran Deirmendjian, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol 6, 452 (1955).
[Crossref]

Astron. Zh. (1)

V. G. Fesenkov, Astron. Zh. 37, 785 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Astron.—AJ 4, 741 (1961)].

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

H. Neuberger, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 31, 119 (1950).

Electronics (1)

M. H. Sweet, Electronics 19, 105 (1946).

Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. (2)

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 39, 285 (1933).

Z. Sekera, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 44, 157 (1935).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Meteorol. Z. (1)

Z. Sekera, Meteorol. Z. 55, 337 (1938).

Usp. Fiz. Nauk. (1)

G. V. Rozenberg, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71, 173 (1960) [English transl.: Soviet Phys.—Usp. 3, 346 (1960)].

Z. Meteorol. (1)

Gerhard Dietze, Z. Meteorol. 5, 86 (1951).

Other (7)

H. C. van de Hulst, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets, edited by G. P. Kuiper (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1952), pp. 49–111.

N. N. Gorokhovskaya and et al., Actinometry, Atmospheric Optics and Nuclear Meteorology, NASA Technical Translation NASA TTF-150 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington D. C., June1964).

Muneyasu Kano, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles (1964, unpublished).

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, and Z. Sekera, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1960).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford University Press, London, 1950), pp. 393.

Z. Sekera, Advances in Geophysics (Academic Press Inc., New York1956), Vol. III, pp. 43–104.
[Crossref]

Z. Sekera, Encyclopedia of Physics, edited by S. Flügge (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg, 1957), Vol. XLVIII, pp. 288–328.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The photoelectric skylight polarimeter. (A) Collimators, (B) sunseeker, (C) scan angle potentiometer, (D) scan drive, (E) sunseeker elevation drive, (F) sunseeker azimuth drive, (G) photomultiplier tubes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Features of skylight polarization in the sun’s vertical. (AR) Arago point, (BA) Babinet point, (BR) Brewster point, (H) horizon, (M) region of maximum polarization, (O) observer, (S) sun, (S′) antisolar point, (A) Antisolar distance of Arago point, (B1) solar distance of Babinet point, (B2) solar distance of Brewster point, (h) elevation of sun.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of the solar distance of the Babinet point with elevation of sun in a molecular atmosphere (theory). (B1) solar distance of Babinet point, (h) elevation of sun. (b) Variation of the solar distance of the Brewster point and the antisolar distance of the Arago point with elevation of sun in a molecular atmosphere (theory). (A) antisolar distance of Arago point (leftof dashed line), (B2) solar distance of Brewster point (right of dashed line), (h) elevation of sun.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of degree of maximum polarization with elevation of sun (theory). Pmax degree of maximum polarization, (h) elevation of sun. ——Albedo A=0., – –Albedo A=0.25.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of position of point of maximum polarization with elevation of sun (theory). θmax solar distance of point of maximum polarization, (h) elevation of sun. Top diagram, Albedo A=0; bottom diagram, Albedo A=0.25.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured values of skylight polarization parameters, 18 March 1963. ●,τ=0.064; Δ,τ=0.123; x,τ=0.329. In the second diagram from top, Brewster points are to the left of dashed line, Arago points are to the right. Visibility diagram: ——Los Angeles International Airport, ⋯⋯ downtown Los Angeles, ——Santa Monica Airport. (b) Observed deviations of skylight polarization parameters from the computed values for a molecular atmosphere, 18 March, 1963. In the first diagram from bottom, points above the solid line are for albedo A=0, those below the line are for albedo A=0.25. Notation same as in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured values or skylight polarization parameters, 20 March 1963. Notation same as in Fig. 6 (a). (b) Observed deviations of skylight polarization parameters from the computed values for a molecular atmosphere, 20 March 1963. Notation same as in Fig. 6 (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion of polarization. PB degree of maximum polarization in blue, PR degree of maximum polarization in red, ○, Dietze (1950); ×Mt. Palomar (1956), ●, UCLA (1963).

Tables (1)

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Table I Computed values of the normal optical thickness of the atmosphere.

Equations (1)

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τ λ ( z 0 ) = z 0 β λ ( z ) d z ,