Abstract

The paper presents a theoretical development of the optical characteristics of photometers employing lenses. Both in-focus and out-of-focus operation are analyzed in detail for three types of photometers: a photometer employing fixed apertures, a photometer employing a simple lens, and a photometer employing a combination of a simple lens and a fixed aperture. The range of satisfactory operation of such instruments is carefully defined, as well as the gross errors which may occur in special applications.

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