Abstract

An aplanatic total reflection telescope for use in the soft x-ray region has been constructed and tested in this laboratory. The telescope has a collecting area of 2 cm2, an angular resolution of 1 min of arc, and a field of view of 40 min of arc. The focal length is 64 cm. The grazing angle of incidence on the telescope surface is about 1° for paraxial radiation. This results in an efficiency of reflection of 0.2% in the 8–12 Å region and 5.0% at 44 Å. These characteristics make it particularly suited to the study of celestial x-ray sources from rocket- and satellite-borne instrumentation.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 10, 94 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  3. Paper presented by J. C. Lindsay at the I. A. U. Symposium No. 23, “Astronomical Observations from Space Vehicles,” Institute d’Astrophysique, Liège, Belgium, 17–20 August 1964.
  4. P. Kirkpatrick, “Grazing-Incidence Telescopic Systems” in H. Pattee and et al., Third International Symposium on X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Micro-Analysis, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1964).
  5. R. W. Hendrick, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 165 (1957).
    [Crossref]

1960 (1)

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 10, 94 (1952).
[Crossref]

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960).
[Crossref]

Hendrick, R. W.

Kirkpatrick, P.

P. Kirkpatrick, “Grazing-Incidence Telescopic Systems” in H. Pattee and et al., Third International Symposium on X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Micro-Analysis, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1964).

Lindsay, J. C.

Paper presented by J. C. Lindsay at the I. A. U. Symposium No. 23, “Astronomical Observations from Space Vehicles,” Institute d’Astrophysique, Liège, Belgium, 17–20 August 1964.

Rossi, B.

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960).
[Crossref]

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 10, 94 (1952).
[Crossref]

Ann. Physik (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. Physik 10, 94 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. Giacconi and B. Rossi, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (2)

Paper presented by J. C. Lindsay at the I. A. U. Symposium No. 23, “Astronomical Observations from Space Vehicles,” Institute d’Astrophysique, Liège, Belgium, 17–20 August 1964.

P. Kirkpatrick, “Grazing-Incidence Telescopic Systems” in H. Pattee and et al., Third International Symposium on X-Ray Optics and X-Ray Micro-Analysis, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1964).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image formation in a grazing-incidence telescope. The angles are much exaggerated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of an actual aluminum telescope. The entrance and exit baffles are used to increase contrast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gross measurement of angular resolution for an aluminum telescope at 8–20Å.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of a point x-ray source (diameter approximately 2.5×10−2 cm). The source was moved 6.35 mm between exposures of adjacent dots, and 5.1 cm between outer and central pairs. The source was at a distance of 10.2 m from the telescope. The angular separation between adjacent dots thus corresponds to 2.5′. During exposure the following number of photons were monitored by a G–M counter 10.2 m from the source: from left to right 80 000, 90 000, 104 000, 140 000, 96 000, and 70 000 photon counts. The wavelength range was from about 8 to 20 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Visible-light photograph taken with the telescope. The pattern is obtained by photographing a grid composed of 0.0867-cm wire perpendicular to 0.1060-cm wire at a distance of 945 cm, where the wires subtend angles of 18.91″ and 23.13″, respectively. The spacing of adjacent wire edges is 0.1540 cm between the thinner wires and 0.0763 cm between the thicker wires, corresponding to angular separations of 33.60″ and 16.43″. For comparison, the equivalent diameter of the sun is shown.

Equations (2)

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r = 0.03054636 1 - cos θ             paraboloid , r = - 0.03058627 1 - 1.001219832 cos θ hyperboloid ,
E = R F A GT / R A A Tel ,