Abstract

Color measurement of anatase and rutile pigmentations using various color-mixture functions has shown that Judd’s 1949 modification of the standard observer provides the closest agreement with visual perception. The effect of Judd’s modification is to change the z¯ function and the short-wavelength lobe of the x¯ function, so that for a tristimulus filter colorimeter it is necessary to change only the blue filter. Such a blue filter has been designed for use with the Colormaster differential colorimeter. With this new filter, accurate color grading (in agreement with visual perception) can be made for titanium dioxide.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Jacobsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 442 (1948).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage.
  3. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, Proc. Eighth Session, Cambridge, England, 19–29 September 1931.
  4. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 43, 227 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 14, 41 (1935).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
    [Crossref]
  8. Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (Thomas Y. Crowell, New York, 1953), p. 241.
  9. W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 7, 424 (1959) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 7, 424 (1959)].
  11. CIE Proceedings, (1960).
  12. Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, , Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight, Report of Secretariat U. S. Committee (1951).
  13. I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  14. The tristimulus values in Judd’s 1949 modified system are given for a wavelength range of 360 to 770 mμ, inclusive. We have used the range 390 to 700 mμ, inclusive, which is the range in the visible region of our GE spectrophotometer. This spectrophotometer can also be used to 1000 mμ by changing cams, but it was decided not to extend our measurements to 770 mμ, since the spectrophotometric curves of anatase and rutile are almost flat in this region and trial computations indicated that no significant changes were introduced by such truncation.
  15. W. F. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 294.
  16. L. G. Glasser and D. J. Troy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 652 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. G. Glasser, Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d’Imprimiere de l’Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) 111, 47 (1955).
  18. R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1942).
  19. The term, “accessory blue filter,” is used to designate the special filter designed for this conversion.
  20. “Spectral Sensitivity Characteristic of Phototube Having S-4 Response,” (1947).
  21. “Glass Color Filters,” Corning Glass Works, Optical Sales Department, Form No. c-248 Rev. 5-11-53.
  22. For convenience the following convention is used: G, R, B, and XB are the Colormaster differential colorimeter reflectances of a sample with the green, red, blue, and accessory blue filters, respectively.
  23. The transmittance of the yellow component of this filter is critical; for most satisfactory results it has been necessary to provide Corning Glass Works with a satisfactory sample and instructions that it be matched to within ±1 mμ in the cutoff part of the curve. In use the two components are not cemented together, but are clamped on the filter wheel of the colorimeter with black paper spacers between the components to avoid formation of Newton’s rings.

1961 (1)

I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (2)

W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 7, 424 (1959) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 7, 424 (1959)].

1955 (1)

L. G. Glasser, Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d’Imprimiere de l’Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) 111, 47 (1955).

1952 (1)

1949 (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 43, 227 (1949).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

1945 (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1942 (1)

R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1942).

1935 (1)

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 14, 41 (1935).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Burch, J. B.

W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Dannemiller, M. C.

I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
[Crossref]

Dixon, W. F.

W. F. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 294.

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Glasser, L. G.

L. G. Glasser, Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d’Imprimiere de l’Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) 111, 47 (1955).

L. G. Glasser and D. J. Troy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 652 (1952).
[Crossref]

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1942).

Jacobsen, A. E.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 43, 227 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 14, 41 (1935).
[Crossref]

Massey, F. J.

W. F. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 294.

Nimeroff, I.

I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
[Crossref]

Rosenblatt, J. R.

I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
[Crossref]

Speranskaya, N. I.

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 7, 424 (1959) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 7, 424 (1959)].

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Troy, D. J.

Tyndall, E. P. T.

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d’Imprimiere de l’Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) (1)

L. G. Glasser, Congrès Fédération des Associations de Techniciens des Industries des Peintures et Encres d’Imprimiere de l’Europe Continentale (FATIPEC) 111, 47 (1955).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (3)

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 43, 227 (1949).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 14, 41 (1935).
[Crossref]

I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. Dannemiller, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 65A, 475 (1961).
[Crossref]

Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1)

R. S. Hunter, Natl. Bur. Std. Circ. No. 429 (1942).

Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper (1)

K. S. Gibson and E. P. T. Tyndall, Natl. Bur. Std. Sci. Paper 19, 131 (1923).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. B. Burch, Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Opt. i Spectroskopiya (1)

N. I. Speranskaya, Opt. i Spectroskopiya 7, 424 (1959) [English transl.: Opt. Spectry. (USSR) 7, 424 (1959)].

Science (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (12)

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage.

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, Proc. Eighth Session, Cambridge, England, 19–29 September 1931.

CIE Proceedings, (1960).

Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage, , Colorimetry and Artificial Daylight, Report of Secretariat U. S. Committee (1951).

Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (Thomas Y. Crowell, New York, 1953), p. 241.

The tristimulus values in Judd’s 1949 modified system are given for a wavelength range of 360 to 770 mμ, inclusive. We have used the range 390 to 700 mμ, inclusive, which is the range in the visible region of our GE spectrophotometer. This spectrophotometer can also be used to 1000 mμ by changing cams, but it was decided not to extend our measurements to 770 mμ, since the spectrophotometric curves of anatase and rutile are almost flat in this region and trial computations indicated that no significant changes were introduced by such truncation.

W. F. Dixon and F. J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis (McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1957), p. 294.

The term, “accessory blue filter,” is used to designate the special filter designed for this conversion.

“Spectral Sensitivity Characteristic of Phototube Having S-4 Response,” (1947).

“Glass Color Filters,” Corning Glass Works, Optical Sales Department, Form No. c-248 Rev. 5-11-53.

For convenience the following convention is used: G, R, B, and XB are the Colormaster differential colorimeter reflectances of a sample with the green, red, blue, and accessory blue filters, respectively.

The transmittance of the yellow component of this filter is critical; for most satisfactory results it has been necessary to provide Corning Glass Works with a satisfactory sample and instructions that it be matched to within ±1 mμ in the cutoff part of the curve. In use the two components are not cemented together, but are clamped on the filter wheel of the colorimeter with black paper spacers between the components to avoid formation of Newton’s rings.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticity diagram—chromaticities of rutile and anatase pigmentations (dry acrylic resin paints) for various color-mixture functions (illuminant C). Legend: R, rutile; A, anatase.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

z ¯ tristimulus distribution functions. Legend: —— 1931 CIE; – – – Judd’s 1949 modified standard observer; — — — Stiles–Burch–Speranskaya.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Test of first filter combination XBR, BR, vs excitation purity. Legend: —— BR; — — — XBR; ○ rutile BR; □ anatase BR; △ rutile XBR; +anatase XBR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Computed (XB)cR and measured XBR for first filter combination. Legend: —— measured XBR; — —; computed (XB)cR; ○ rutile measured XBR; □ anatase measured XBR; △ rutile computed (XB)cR; + anatase computed (XB)cR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral transmittance of accessory blue filter and its components (combination II).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Computed (XB)cR for filter combination II. Legend: ○ rutile; □ anatase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BR (regular blue filter) vs excitation purity. Legend: ○ rutile; □ anatase; △ mixtures of rutile and anatase.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

XBR (accessory blue filter) vs excitation purity. Legend: ○ rutile; □ anatase; △ mixtures of rutile and anatase.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Spectrophotometric reflectance data. GE spectrophotometer, specular component excluded. Dry acrylic resin paints pigmented with rutile or anatase.

Tables Icon

Table II Chromaticity coordinates for rutile and anatase pigmentations (dry acrylic resin paints) for various color-mixture functions (illuminant C).

Tables Icon

Table III Correlation of visual ranking with ranking according to excitation purity.

Equations (4)

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or             k E L T S = E c z ¯ , T = E c z ¯ / k E L S ,
( R B ) c = 390 510 R E L S T B Δ λ / 390 510 E L S T B Δ λ ,
( R XB ) c = 390 510 R E L S T XB Δ λ / 390 510 E L S T XB Δ λ ,
( R XB ) s = ( R B ) s ( R XB ) c / ( R B ) c .