Abstract

The problem of image evaluation for small aberrations by means of the Maréchal method of phase-error balancing is well known. For the case of large phase-errors, a number of authors have suggested spot diagram averaging. This method implies an association of ray density with energy flux, which is well justified by experience for large aberrations, but certainly subject to question for small aberrations. Using the radius of gyration as a measure, the ray density method of averaging over the image plane is shown to be equivalent to the simpler and more physical process of averaging over the exit pupil using the radius as a weighting factor. In addition, a proof for the justification of the ray density method is given along with the geometrical intensity law. This proof stems from an application of Liouville’s theorem. Finally, the two limits are compared with results published in the literature for various combinations of aberrations.

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  2. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1959).
  3. H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberrations (Oxford University Press, New York, 1953).
  4. E. L. O'Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1963), p. 64.
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  10. J. Ogura, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 579 (1958).
  11. L. P. Smith, Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1953).
  12. K. Fukui, "Application of the Linfoot Quality Factors to Third-Order Spherical Aberration," thesis, Boston University Graduate School (1957).
  13. E. L. O'Neill, "Selected Topics in Optics and Communication Theory," Boston University Physical Research Laboratories (1956).
  14. E. H. Linfoot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 740 (1956).
  15. H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).
  16. G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 827 (1953).

Arakengy, A.

A. Arakengy, Am. J. Phys. 25, 519 (1957).

Born, M.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1959).

di Francia, G. Toraldo

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 827 (1953).

Francon, M.

A. Maréchal and M. Francon, Editions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, France (1960).

Fukui, K.

K. Fukui, "Application of the Linfoot Quality Factors to Third-Order Spherical Aberration," thesis, Boston University Graduate School (1957).

Herzberger, M.

M. Herzberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 485 (1947).

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberrations (Oxford University Press, New York, 1953).

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).

Linfoot, E. H.

E. H. Linfoot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 740 (1956).

Maréchal, A.

A. Maréchal and M. Francon, Editions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, France (1960).

Miyamoto, K.

K. Miyamoto, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 26, 421 (1947).

K. Miyamoto, Progress in Optics (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961), Vol. 1.

Nienhuis, K.

K. Nienhuis and B. R. A. Nijboer, Physica 14, 590 (1949).

Nijboer, B. R. A.

K. Nienhuis and B. R. A. Nijboer, Physica 14, 590 (1949).

O’Neill, E. L.

E. L. O'Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1963), p. 64.

E. L. O'Neill, "Selected Topics in Optics and Communication Theory," Boston University Physical Research Laboratories (1956).

Ogura, J.

J. Ogura, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 579 (1958).

Smith, L. P.

L. P. Smith, Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1953).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1959).

Other (16)

A. Maréchal and M. Francon, Editions de la Revue d'Optique, Paris, France (1960).

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1959).

H. H. Hopkins, Wave Theory of Aberrations (Oxford University Press, New York, 1953).

E. L. O'Neill, Introduction to Statistical Optics (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts, 1963), p. 64.

K. Nienhuis and B. R. A. Nijboer, Physica 14, 590 (1949).

M. Herzberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 485 (1947).

A. Arakengy, Am. J. Phys. 25, 519 (1957).

K. Miyamoto, J. Appl. Phys. (Japan) 26, 421 (1947).

K. Miyamoto, Progress in Optics (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1961), Vol. 1.

J. Ogura, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 579 (1958).

L. P. Smith, Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers (Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1953).

K. Fukui, "Application of the Linfoot Quality Factors to Third-Order Spherical Aberration," thesis, Boston University Graduate School (1957).

E. L. O'Neill, "Selected Topics in Optics and Communication Theory," Boston University Physical Research Laboratories (1956).

E. H. Linfoot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 740 (1956).

H. H. Hopkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) B70, 449 (1957).

G. Toraldo di Francia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 827 (1953).

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