Abstract

The optical properties of plane-grating monochromators such as the Ebert and Czerny—Turner types are examined by geometrical optics. The grating equation and the expression for the focal surface are given; by using them, expressions are found for the image form; the optical system that minimizes wavelength impurity is discussed; and such residual aberrations as coma and astigmatism are examined collectively. In any monochromator, the focal surface depends upon the grating position and the off-axial properties of the collimator. In an Ebert-type monochromator with a circular-arc-shaped entrance slit the image form is a circular arc only in a symmetric arrangement; it is elliptic in other arrangements; the light through a circular-arc-shaped exit slit is free of wavelength error; and even if the slit is long, the image will not be much blurred by residual aberrations. Therefore, it is advisable to use long circular-arc slits if the system is of the Ebert type. In the Ebert- or Czerny—Turner-type monochromator with a straight entrance slit the image is parabolic. In the Czerny—Turner type both the image form and focal surface are affected by its nonconcentric character.

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  2. M. A. Ford et al., J. Sci. Instr. 35, 55 (1957).
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  6. A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, and L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soe. Am. 54, 879 (1964).
  7. H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945).
  8. T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).
  9. K. Kudo, Sci. Light 9, 1 (1960).
  10. N. Sassa, Sci. Light 10, 53 (1961).
  11. A. S. Filler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 424 (1964).
  12. W. Leo, Z. Angew. Phys. 8, 196 (1956).

Beutler, H. G.

H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945).

Droppleman, L.

A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, and L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soe. Am. 54, 879 (1964).

Fastie, W. G.

W. G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 641, 647 (1952).

Filler, A. S.

A. S. Filler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 424 (1964).

Ford, M. A.

M. A. Ford et al., J. Sci. Instr. 35, 55 (1957).

Kudo, K.

K. Kudo, Sci. Light 9, 1 (1960).

Leo, W.

W. Leo, Z. Angew. Phys. 8, 196 (1956).

Megill, L. R.

A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, and L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soe. Am. 54, 879 (1964).

Namioka, T.

T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).

Nielsen, H. H.

K. N. Rao and H. H. Nielsen, Appl. Opt. 2, 1123 (1963).

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao and H. H. Nielsen, Appl. Opt. 2, 1123 (1963).

Robinson, D. W.

D. W. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 966 (1959).

Rosendahl, G. R.

G. R. Rosendahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1 (1961); 52, 408, 412 (1962).

Sassa, N.

N. Sassa, Sci. Light 10, 53 (1961).

Shafer, A. B.

A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, and L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soe. Am. 54, 879 (1964).

Other (12)

W. G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 641, 647 (1952).

M. A. Ford et al., J. Sci. Instr. 35, 55 (1957).

D. W. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 966 (1959).

K. N. Rao and H. H. Nielsen, Appl. Opt. 2, 1123 (1963).

G. R. Rosendahl, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1 (1961); 52, 408, 412 (1962).

A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, and L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soe. Am. 54, 879 (1964).

H. G. Beutler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311 (1945).

T. Namioka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 446 (1959).

K. Kudo, Sci. Light 9, 1 (1960).

N. Sassa, Sci. Light 10, 53 (1961).

A. S. Filler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 424 (1964).

W. Leo, Z. Angew. Phys. 8, 196 (1956).

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