Abstract

Three experiments on the Bezold–Brücke phenomenon (change in the hue of spectral colors caused by change in field luminance) are reported. The first is an exact replication of Purdy’s classic experiment, where the shift between 100 and 1000 trolands is investigated by direct matching in a steadily presented bipartite field. The second is a modification of Purdy’s experiment where the observer is asked to match on the basis of 300-msec flashes of the bipartite field. The third is an experiment where no matches are required, but where the observer is asked to judge the hue of a flashing stimulus using a forced-choice color-naming technique. The results of the three experiments are compared: differences are discussed in terms of viewing time and simultaneous contrast.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. von Bezold, Ann. Physik 150, 221 (1873).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. McL and Purdy Am, J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 507 (1960).
  4. R. M. Boynton and M. E. Neun, Science,  145, 666 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1960), Chap. IV.
  6. R. M. Boynton and J. W. Onley, Vision Res. 2, 383 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in S. S. Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951).
  8. L. C. Thomson, Opt. Acta. 1, 93 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 242 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 348 (1939).
    [Crossref]
  11. Aleeza Cerf and Beare Am, J. Psychol. 76, 248 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  12. Complete tabular data are available from the senior author upon request.
  13. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 602 (1955); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 405 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

R. M. Boynton and M. E. Neun, Science,  145, 666 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

Aleeza Cerf and Beare Am, J. Psychol. 76, 248 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

R. M. Boynton and J. W. Onley, Vision Res. 2, 383 (1962).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 507 (1960).

1955 (1)

1954 (1)

L. C. Thomson, Opt. Acta. 1, 93 (1954).
[Crossref]

1939 (2)

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 242 (1939).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 348 (1939).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

D. McL and Purdy Am, J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931).
[Crossref]

1873 (1)

W. von Bezold, Ann. Physik 150, 221 (1873).
[Crossref]

Am, Beare

Aleeza Cerf and Beare Am, J. Psychol. 76, 248 (1963).
[Crossref]

Am, Purdy

D. McL and Purdy Am, J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931).
[Crossref]

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton and M. E. Neun, Science,  145, 666 (1964).
[Crossref]

R. M. Boynton and J. W. Onley, Vision Res. 2, 383 (1962).
[Crossref]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1960), Chap. IV.

Cerf, Aleeza

Aleeza Cerf and Beare Am, J. Psychol. 76, 248 (1963).
[Crossref]

Cornsweet, T. N.

T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 507 (1960).

Dimmick, F. L.

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 348 (1939).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 242 (1939).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, M. R.

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 242 (1939).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 348 (1939).
[Crossref]

Hurvich, L. M.

Jameson, D.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in S. S. Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951).

McL, D.

D. McL and Purdy Am, J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931).
[Crossref]

Neun, M. E.

R. M. Boynton and M. E. Neun, Science,  145, 666 (1964).
[Crossref]

Onley, J. W.

R. M. Boynton and J. W. Onley, Vision Res. 2, 383 (1962).
[Crossref]

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson, Opt. Acta. 1, 93 (1954).
[Crossref]

von Bezold, W.

W. von Bezold, Ann. Physik 150, 221 (1873).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Psychol. (2)

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 242 (1939).
[Crossref]

F. L. Dimmick and M. R. Hubbard, Am. J. Psychol. 52, 348 (1939).
[Crossref]

Ann. Physik (1)

W. von Bezold, Ann. Physik 150, 221 (1873).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Psychol. (2)

D. McL and Purdy Am, J. Psychol. 43, 541 (1931).
[Crossref]

Aleeza Cerf and Beare Am, J. Psychol. 76, 248 (1963).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta. (1)

L. C. Thomson, Opt. Acta. 1, 93 (1954).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

R. M. Boynton and M. E. Neun, Science,  145, 666 (1964).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

R. M. Boynton and J. W. Onley, Vision Res. 2, 383 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. B. Judd, “Basic correlates of the visual stimulus,” in S. S. Stevens, Handbook of Experimental Psychology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951).

G. S. Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and the Visual Pathway (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 1960), Chap. IV.

Complete tabular data are available from the senior author upon request.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change in wavelength of 100-troland field required for it to match 1000-troland field at the wavelength of the 1000-troland field indicated on the abscissa. Curves are averages for the three subjects. ○ — – — ○ steady matches; △ — — — △ flash matches; ◇ —— ◇ Purdy’s experiment.

Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2(a)

Data from color naming experiment. Observer MB; top 100 trolands; bottom 1000 trolands, see text for explanation of method of computation.

Fig. 2(b)
Fig. 2(b)

Same as (a) observer JG; top 100 trolands; bottom 1000 trolands, see text for explanation of method of computation.

Fig. 2(c)
Fig. 2(c)

Same as (a), observer TY; top 100 trolands; bottom 1000 trolands. See text for explanation of method of computation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Data of subject JG, adjusted to remove overlapping regions of red–green and yellow–blue responses; top 100 trolands; bottom 1000 trolands. Fig. 3(b) Ratio of point values of color naming responses derived from the adjusted curve of subject JG. As an illustration, it is shown that a 1000-troland stimulus at 660 nm will match a 100-troland stimulus for R/Y only if the latter is adjusted to 630 nm. Vertical lines are psychologically unique wavelengths taken from Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hue-shift data ○ from color-naming experiment. These are the average values derived from an analysis of data like those of Fig. 3(b) for each subject. The ordinate values show the change in wavelength of the 100-troland stimulus required for it to match the 1000-troland stimulus for response ratio R/Y, Y/G, G/B, or R/B, depending upon the spectral region under consideration. — – – — Purdy; — – — steady matches; – – – – flash matches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average of standard deviations of three subjects for steady and flash matches, as a function of wavelength.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Change in wavelength of 100-troland field required for it to match a 1000-troland field for hue (matching experiments) or to produce the same ratio of response components (color-naming experiment).

Tables Icon

Table II Split-half reliability coefficients of correlation (rank-difference, no correction).

Tables Icon

Table III Zero-shift points in spectrum, as obtained from graphical analysis of hue-shift data for each subject from each of the three methods used, and unique points as obtained from analysis of color-naming data at each luminance level.

Tables Icon

Table IV rms values of discrepancies (in nm) between matching wavelengths for the three methods of the experiment: M (matching of steady fields); F (flash matching); and C (color naming).