Abstract

Spectral distributions of 622 samples of daylight (skylight, and sunlight plus skylight) have been subjected to characteristic vector analysis, as composite data and in three subgroups (99 distributions measured by Budde; 249, by Condit; and 274, by Henderson and Hodgkiss). The chromaticity coordinates (<i>x,y</i>) computed from these distributions have been compared with direct visual determinations of chromaticity coordinates of daylight by Nayatani and Wyszecki, and by Chamberlin, Lawrence, and Belbin. It was found that the chromaticities indicated by the spectral distributions and by direct visual colorimetry cluster about the curve: <i>y</i> = 2.870<i>x</i>-3.000<i>x</i><sup>2</sup>-0.275. This curve of typical daylight chromaticities falls slightly on the green side of the Planckian locus. From the mean and the first two characteristic vectors of the composite data, spectral distribution curves have been reconstituted by choice of scalar multiples of the vectors such that the chromaticity points fall on the curve of typical daylight chromaticities at places corresponding to correlated color temperatures of 4800°, 5500°, 6500°, 7500°, and 10000° K. The representative character of these reconstituted spectral-distribution curves has been established by comparison with the measured curves from each subgroup yielding the closest approximation to the same chromaticities. The agreement so found suggests that this family of curves is more representative of the various phases of daylight between correlated color temperatures 4800° and 10000°K than any previously derived distributions.

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  1. Proceedings of the International Commission on Illumination, 8th Session, Cambridge, 1931 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1932) p. 19.
  2. R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, "Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature," Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Misc. Pub. 114 (1931).
  3. R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).
  4. G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).
  5. Proceedings of the International Commnission on Illumination, 14th Session, Brussels, 1959 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris, 5e, France, 1960), Vol. A, p. 93.
  6. Proceedings of the International Commnission on Illumination, 15th Session, Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage) (to be published).
  7. K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).
  8. W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).
  9. Proceedings of the International Commission onl Illumination, 13th Session, ZIIrich, 1955 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris 5e, France, 1955), Vol. I, p. 1.3.1 U-9.
  10. Norman Macbeth and W. B. Reese, "Some practical notes on standard illumination practices for color matching in the U. S. A.—past, present, and future," 7th International Conference on Color; Florence, Prato, and Padua, Italy; 2–7 May 1963.
  11. C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).
  12. P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
  13. A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).
  14. S. T. Henderson and D. Hodgkiss, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 125 (1963).
  15. H. R. Condit and F. Grum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1340 (1963); 54, 937 (1964).
  16. R. H. Morris and J. H. Morrissey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 530 (1954); J. L. Simonds, ibid. 53, 968 (1963).
  17. R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).
  18. G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).
  19. Y. Nayatani and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 626 (1963).
  20. K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 999 (1963).

1963 (5)

S. T. Henderson and D. Hodgkiss, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 125 (1963).

H. R. Condit and F. Grum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1340 (1963); 54, 937 (1964).

G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).

Y. Nayatani and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 626 (1963).

K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 999 (1963).

1956 (1)

G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

1954 (2)

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).

R. H. Morris and J. H. Morrissey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 530 (1954); J. L. Simonds, ibid. 53, 968 (1963).

1953 (1)

R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).

1947 (1)

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).

1941 (1)

A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).

1940 (2)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

1931 (1)

R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, "Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature," Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Misc. Pub. 114 (1931).

1923 (1)

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Abbot, C. G.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Aldrich, L. B.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Belbin, A. A.

G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).

Chamberlin, G. J.

G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).

Condit, H. R.

H. R. Condit and F. Grum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1340 (1963); 54, 937 (1964).

Davis, R.

R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).

R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, "Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature," Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Misc. Pub. 114 (1931).

Donaldson, R.

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).

Fowle, F. E.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Gibson, K. S.

R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, "Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature," Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Misc. Pub. 114 (1931).

Grum, F.

H. R. Condit and F. Grum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1340 (1963); 54, 937 (1964).

Haupt, G. W.

R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).

Henderson, S. T.

S. T. Henderson and D. Hodgkiss, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 125 (1963).

Hodgkiss, D.

S. T. Henderson and D. Hodgkiss, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 125 (1963).

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 999 (1963).

Kerr, G. P.

A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).

Lawrence, A.

G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).

Lobanova, N. V.

G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).

Moon, P.

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).

Morris, R. H.

R. H. Morris and J. H. Morrissey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 530 (1954); J. L. Simonds, ibid. 53, 968 (1963).

Morrissey, J. H.

R. H. Morris and J. H. Morrissey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 530 (1954); J. L. Simonds, ibid. 53, 968 (1963).

Nayatani, Y.

Y. Nayatani and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 626 (1963).

Rautian, G. N.

G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

Taylor, A. H.

A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).

Wyszecki, G.

Y. Nayatani and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 626 (1963).

Znamenskaya, M. A.

G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (1)

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, "The distribution of energy in the spectra of the sun and stars," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Other (19)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).

A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).

S. T. Henderson and D. Hodgkiss, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 125 (1963).

H. R. Condit and F. Grum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1340 (1963); 54, 937 (1964).

R. H. Morris and J. H. Morrissey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 530 (1954); J. L. Simonds, ibid. 53, 968 (1963).

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).

G. J. Chamberlin, A. Lawrence, and A. A. Belbin, Light and Lighting 56, 73 (1963).

Y. Nayatani and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 626 (1963).

K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 999 (1963).

Proceedings of the International Commission on Illumination, 8th Session, Cambridge, 1931 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1932) p. 19.

R. Davis and K. S. Gibson, "Filters for the Reproduction of Sunlight and Daylight and the Determination of Color Temperature," Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.), Misc. Pub. 114 (1931).

R. Davis, K. S. Gibson, and G. W. Haupt, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 50, 31 (1953); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 172 (1953).

G. N. Rautian, N. V. Lobanova, and M. A. Znamenskaya, Z. Tech. Fisiki 26, 193 (1956). D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

Proceedings of the International Commnission on Illumination, 14th Session, Brussels, 1959 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris, 5e, France, 1960), Vol. A, p. 93.

Proceedings of the International Commnission on Illumination, 15th Session, Vienna, 1963 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage) (to be published).

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).

Proceedings of the International Commission onl Illumination, 13th Session, ZIIrich, 1955 (Bureau Central de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, 57, rue Cuvier, Paris 5e, France, 1955), Vol. I, p. 1.3.1 U-9.

Norman Macbeth and W. B. Reese, "Some practical notes on standard illumination practices for color matching in the U. S. A.—past, present, and future," 7th International Conference on Color; Florence, Prato, and Padua, Italy; 2–7 May 1963.

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