Abstract

Spectral sensitivity curves were determined at mesopic luminance levels, 0.1 and 0.01 ft-L, for a 2° field viewed foveally and parafoveally. These data are compared with similar curves for a 10° field, centrally fixated, whose area encompasses the smaller areas studied individually. The results show that, at 0.1 ft-L, differences between the 2° and 10° fields are similar to those between the CIE 2° and 10° photopic curves; furthermore the large field data can be predicted from the 2° data. At 0.01 ft-L however the spectral sensitivity is different from both CIE photopic and scotopic values at all positions and summation within the large field is complex.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Nutting, Bull. Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) 7, 235 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173, 38, 1 (1928).
  3. H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).
  4. J. A. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 507 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 185 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. International Commission on Illumination, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 734 (1951).
  7. CIE, Compt. Rend. Quatorzième Session, Bruxelles, June1959, Volume A 95.
  8. Preprint of Progress Report, Comm E.1.4.1, CIE Vienna 1963.
  9. K. S. Weaver, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 278 (1949).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. W. Bridgman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 733 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Handbook of Experimental Psychology edited by S. S. Stevens, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 819.
  12. A. Giorgi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 480 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Landis, Physiol. Rev. 34, 259 (1954).
    [PubMed]
  14. W. A. Richards and S. M. Luria, “Color Mixture Functions at Low Luminance Levels” Vision Research (in press).
  15. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 589 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).
  17. R. E. Harrington, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 113 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Chapanis and R. M. Halsey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 1 (1955).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 398 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Wyszecki and C. L. Sanders, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 840 (1957).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. See H. G. Sperling, Natl. Phys. Lab., G. Brit., Proc. Colour Symp.251 (1958).
  22. The writer is indebted to J. Tisher for her help in the collection of data.
  23. The colored light from the interference filters did not always reach 100% purity. However, in the interests of clarity, the stimulus condition of colored light alone is arbitrarily defined as “100% purity” and the one-half color, one-half white condition as “50% purity.”
  24. These data were obtained during the course of another experiment.14 The conditions were the same as described therein except that the spectral stimuli were flickered with an “off-white” standard set at 0.1 ft-L.
  25. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 713 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, preprint of paper (P. 63.6) given at CIE, Vienna, Austria, June1963.
  27. See Ref. 26, p. 8.
  28. W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).
  29. F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).
    [CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1960 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958 (2)

J. A. Kinney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 185 (1958).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See H. G. Sperling, Natl. Phys. Lab., G. Brit., Proc. Colour Symp.251 (1958).

1957 (2)

1955 (2)

1954 (3)

1953 (2)

C. W. Bridgman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 733 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).

1951 (1)

1950 (1)

1949 (1)

1943 (1)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

1939 (1)

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

1928 (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173, 38, 1 (1928).

1910 (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) 7, 235 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Bridgman, C. W.

Chapanis, A.

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Dresler, A.

A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).

Giorgi, A.

Halsey, R. M.

Harrington, R. E.

Kinney, J. A.

Landis, C.

C. Landis, Physiol. Rev. 34, 259 (1954).
[PubMed]

Luria, S. M.

W. A. Richards and S. M. Luria, “Color Mixture Functions at Low Luminance Levels” Vision Research (in press).

MacAdam, D. L.

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) 7, 235 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Richards, W. A.

W. A. Richards and S. M. Luria, “Color Mixture Functions at Low Luminance Levels” Vision Research (in press).

Sanders, C. L.

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173, 38, 1 (1928).

Sperling, H. G.

See H. G. Sperling, Natl. Phys. Lab., G. Brit., Proc. Colour Symp.251 (1958).

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Walters, H. V.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

Weaver, K. S.

Wright, W. D.

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

Wyszecki, G.

Bull. Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) (1)

P. G. Nutting, Bull. Natl. Bur. Std. (U. S.) 7, 235 (1910).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (12)

Natl. Phys. Lab., G. Brit., Proc. Colour Symp. (1)

See H. G. Sperling, Natl. Phys. Lab., G. Brit., Proc. Colour Symp.251 (1958).

Opt. Acta (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, Opt. Acta 7, 355 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Rev. (1)

C. Landis, Physiol. Rev. 34, 259 (1954).
[PubMed]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (2)

H. V. Walters and W. D. Wright, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B131, 340 (1943).

W. S. Stiles, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B127, 64 (1939).

Psych. Mono. No. (1)

L. L. Sloan, Psych. Mono. No. 173, 38, 1 (1928).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) (1)

A. Dresler, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 18, 141 (1953).

Other (9)

W. A. Richards and S. M. Luria, “Color Mixture Functions at Low Luminance Levels” Vision Research (in press).

C. L. Sanders and G. Wyszecki, preprint of paper (P. 63.6) given at CIE, Vienna, Austria, June1963.

See Ref. 26, p. 8.

Handbook of Experimental Psychology edited by S. S. Stevens, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1951), p. 819.

CIE, Compt. Rend. Quatorzième Session, Bruxelles, June1959, Volume A 95.

Preprint of Progress Report, Comm E.1.4.1, CIE Vienna 1963.

The writer is indebted to J. Tisher for her help in the collection of data.

The colored light from the interference filters did not always reach 100% purity. However, in the interests of clarity, the stimulus condition of colored light alone is arbitrarily defined as “100% purity” and the one-half color, one-half white condition as “50% purity.”

These data were obtained during the course of another experiment.14 The conditions were the same as described therein except that the spectral stimuli were flickered with an “off-white” standard set at 0.1 ft-L.

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Figures (9)

F. 1
F. 1

Size and position of the stimuli used in the experiment. The large field subtended 10° and was viewed centrally; the small field subtended 2° and was viewed at the eccentricities indicated in the diagram.

F. 2
F. 2

Spectral sensitivity at 0.1 ft-L. Eccentricity of 2° stimulus: 0°, centered △ — – — △; 2° ○ – – – ○; 4° ● — — — ●; and the 10° field viewed centrally ×——×.

F. 3
F. 3

Spectral sensitivity at 0.01 ft-L. Eccentricity of 2° stimulus: 0°, centered △ — – — △; 2° ○ – – – ○; 4° ● — — — ●; and the 10° field viewed centrally ×——×.

F. 4
F. 4

The relative difference between peripheral and foveal sensitivity at each wavelength. The data at 0.1 ft-L is given in A, at 0.01 ft-L in B. The solid dots refer to the 2° lower field; the crosses to the 2° nasal field, and the horizontal line to the 10° field.

F. 5
F. 5

The effect of surround level on spectral sensitivity at (a) 0° centered, (b) 2°, (c) 4°, and (d) the 10° field viewed centrally. The energy units at the left and the solid lines refer to 0.1 ft-L; the energy units at the right and the dotted lines, to 0.01 ft-L.

F. 6
F. 6

A comparison between the curves at 0° eccentricity for “100% purity” and “50% purity” at 0.1 ft-L, on the left, and 0.01 ft-L, on the right. “100% purity”: – – – with range between lighter and darker limens =; “50% purity” values +0.3 log unit: —— with lighter–darker range ∣.

F. 7
F. 7

Curves at 0° eccentricity at 0.01 ft-L determined on two separate occasions for each of the four observers. Top row, JK, JT; bottom row, FD, MC. First determination ——; second determination – – –.

F. 8
F. 8

A comparison between the foveal curve of this experiment at 0.1 ft-L (— × — × —), one obtained by flicker photometry on the same observers (– O – O), and the CIE, 2° data, with Judd’s short wavelength adjustment (— ● — ● —).

F. 9
F. 9

CIE chromaticity diagram of the “100% purity” (●) and “50% purity” (+) stimuli of this experiment, and the most saturated stimuli used by Sanders and Wyszecki (○ – – – ○).

Tables (1)

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Table I Individual brightness matches in log μμW/cm2.

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