Abstract

Relaxation processes in Nd are studied. We find that resonance coupling between Nd and other rare earth ions seems to exist. Nd plus Yb in Na0.5Gd0.5WO4 results in a coupled system in which the Yb may be caused to fluoresce by pumping the Nd. Radiation trapping is found to play only a minor role.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 442 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. E. Peterson and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 301 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. E. Peterson and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 494 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. E. Peterson and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1129 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  6. For a review article see Klick and Schulman, Solid State Phys. 5, 97 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  7. A discussion of complex tungstates is given by A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1962), p. 508.
  8. G. H. Dieke, “Spectroscopic Observations on Maser Materials,” paper presented at the Second International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Berkeley, 1961.
  9. D. S. McClure, Solid State Phys. 9, 399 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. A. Kaplvanskii and P. P. Feofilov, Opt. Spectry. 13, 235 (1962)[Opt. i Spektroskopiya 13, 235 (1962)].

1963 (3)

1962 (2)

A. A. Kaplvanskii and P. P. Feofilov, Opt. Spectry. 13, 235 (1962)[Opt. i Spektroskopiya 13, 235 (1962)].

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 442 (1961).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

D. S. McClure, Solid State Phys. 9, 399 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

For a review article see Klick and Schulman, Solid State Phys. 5, 97 (1957).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dieke, G. H.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 442 (1961).
[Crossref]

G. H. Dieke, “Spectroscopic Observations on Maser Materials,” paper presented at the Second International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Berkeley, 1961.

Feofilov, P. P.

A. A. Kaplvanskii and P. P. Feofilov, Opt. Spectry. 13, 235 (1962)[Opt. i Spektroskopiya 13, 235 (1962)].

Kaplvanskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaplvanskii and P. P. Feofilov, Opt. Spectry. 13, 235 (1962)[Opt. i Spektroskopiya 13, 235 (1962)].

Klick,

For a review article see Klick and Schulman, Solid State Phys. 5, 97 (1957).
[Crossref]

McClure, D. S.

D. S. McClure, Solid State Phys. 9, 399 (1959).
[Crossref]

Peterson, G. E.

Schulman,

For a review article see Klick and Schulman, Solid State Phys. 5, 97 (1957).
[Crossref]

Varsanyi, F.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 442 (1961).
[Crossref]

Wells, A. F.

A discussion of complex tungstates is given by A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1962), p. 508.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Opt. Spectry. (1)

A. A. Kaplvanskii and P. P. Feofilov, Opt. Spectry. 13, 235 (1962)[Opt. i Spektroskopiya 13, 235 (1962)].

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 126, 1962 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 442 (1961).
[Crossref]

Solid State Phys. (2)

D. S. McClure, Solid State Phys. 9, 399 (1959).
[Crossref]

For a review article see Klick and Schulman, Solid State Phys. 5, 97 (1957).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A discussion of complex tungstates is given by A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1962), p. 508.

G. H. Dieke, “Spectroscopic Observations on Maser Materials,” paper presented at the Second International Conference on Quantum Electronics, Berkeley, 1961.

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Figures (9)

F. 1
F. 1

Ion A is excited in a real process to State 1. It relaxes to State 2 by exchange of a virtual photon with Ion B. B is excited to State 3. Thermal relaxation from State 3 to State 4 follows. Ion B emits a photon and drops to its ground state. Since energy gap 4-5 in Ion B does not match a gap from the ground state in Ion A, no back exchange of energy from Level 4 is possible.

F. 2
F. 2

The fluorescent lifetime of Nd in the series Na0.5Gd0.46-Nd0.02 rare earth 0.02WO4. Data were taken at liquid N2 temperature. Uncertainties were placed on certain points as the decay was not purely exponential (see text).

F. 3
F. 3

Absorption spectrum of the compound Na0.5Gd0.48Yb0.02WO4.

F. 4
F. 4

Rise and decay of fluorescence in Yb in the compound Na0.5Gd0.46Yb0.02Nd0.02WO4.

F. 5
F. 5

Comparison of Nd decay (solid line) with the “rise function” as obtained graphically from Fig. 6 (see text).

F. 6
F. 6

Time-resolved emission spectrum of Nd+Yb coupled system. Na0.5Gd0.46Nd0.02Yb0.02WO4: (a) 2 μsec; (b) 7 μsec; (c) 25 μsec; (d) 50 μsec; (e) 200 μsec.

F. 7
F. 7

Comparison of near overlapping emissions and absorptions of Nd and Yb.

F. 8
F. 8

Fluorescent lifetime of Nd in the series Na0.5Gd0.5−x NdxWO4. Data taken at liquid nitrogen temperature.

F. 9
F. 9

Schematic diagram of self-quenching mechanism.

Equations (2)

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R = 1 / T 1 / T 0 .
I ( t ) = A e R 2 t B e R 1 t .