Abstract

Land, using only two projecting primaries, demonstrated a wide range of hues in “natural image” projections. Nineteen observers, with normal color vision, viewed Land-type projections and identified the hues perceived with a colorimeter. Results indicate that the wide range of hues perceived was the result of a primary induction due to contrast phenomena (“colored shadow” effect) and a secondary distortion toward the memory color of familiar objects.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115–129 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636–644 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. H. Land, Sci. Am. 200, 84–99 (May1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 268 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Karp, Nature 184, 710–712 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Karp, Nature 188, 40–42 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 189, 440–442 (1961).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Wheeler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1058–1066 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 63–80 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, J. Phot. Sci. 8, 141–150 (1960).
  11. M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, Contemp. Phys. 3, 91–111 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, 1924), Vol. 2.
  13. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 254–268 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. L. Walls, Psychol. Bull. 57, 29–48 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. M. Evans, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 579–614 (1943).
    [CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1961 (2)

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 189, 440–442 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, Contemp. Phys. 3, 91–111 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (6)

D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 254–268 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Walls, Psychol. Bull. 57, 29–48 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karp, Nature 188, 40–42 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, J. Phot. Sci. 8, 141–150 (1960).

E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 268 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (4)

A. Karp, Nature 184, 710–712 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115–129 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636–644 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Sci. Am. 200, 84–99 (May1959).
[CrossRef]

1943 (1)

Brocklebank, R. W.

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, Contemp. Phys. 3, 91–111 (1961).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, J. Phot. Sci. 8, 141–150 (1960).

Evans, R. M.

Helmholtz, H. V.

H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, 1924), Vol. 2.

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, D.

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Judd, D. B.

Karp, A.

A. Karp, Nature 188, 40–42 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karp, Nature 184, 710–712 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Land, E. H.

E. H. Land, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 268 (1960).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115–129 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636–644 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Sci. Am. 200, 84–99 (May1959).
[CrossRef]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 189, 440–442 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, G. L.

G. L. Walls, Psychol. Bull. 57, 29–48 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wheeler, L.

Wilson, M. H.

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, Contemp. Phys. 3, 91–111 (1961).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, J. Phot. Sci. 8, 141–150 (1960).

Contemp. Phys. (1)

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, Contemp. Phys. 3, 91–111 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, J. Gen. Physiol. 43, 63–80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Phot. Sci. (1)

M. H. Wilson and R. W. Brocklebank, J. Phot. Sci. 8, 141–150 (1960).

Nature (3)

A. Karp, Nature 184, 710–712 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. Karp, Nature 188, 40–42 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton, Nature 189, 440–442 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) (2)

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 115–129 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (U. S.) 45, 636–644 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Psychol. Bull. (1)

G. L. Walls, Psychol. Bull. 57, 29–48 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

E. H. Land, Sci. Am. 200, 84–99 (May1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. V. Helmholtz, Physiological Optics (Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, 1924), Vol. 2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Placement of observer O, colorimeter M, dual projectors P, projection screen S, and colorimeter screen S′. OS′=6.5 ft, OS′M=15°; OS=9 ft, OSP=34°; S=3×3 ft; S′=1.5×1.5 in.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the average change in hue perception of 19 observers viewing masked and full image projections (using Land’s two-color projection technique) with the change in hue perception related to contrast (the “colored shadow” effect). Objects: (1) banana, (2) cigarette tax stamp, (3) lemon, (4) blue field of an American flag, (5) green pepper, (6) green tray.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the changes in hue perception of four observers viewing masked and full image projection of scene No. 3 with the change in their perception related to contrast (the “colored shadow” effect).

Equations (1)

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X ¯ = R G + B + R ;             Y ¯ = G G + B + R .