Abstract

The emissivity of carbon dioxide has been measured for temperatures from 1500° to 3000°K over the wavelength range from 4.40 to 5.30 μ. Optical densities varied from 0.04 to 4.00 atm · cm; all measurements were made at a total gas pressure of 1 atm. The test gas was heated to the desired temperature by shock compression. The temperature and pressure of the test gas were determined by measuring initial concentrations and shock wave velocities. The emissivity of the hot gas was obtained in two ways: (1) the spectral radiance from the CO2 was compared to that from a globar, which was calibrated with a blackbody source and (2) the transmission through the hot gas was measured, and emissivity obtained from Kirchhoff’s law. The emissivity obtained with these two methods is in agreement within experimental error. The observed emissivities are reasonably well represented by values calculated with the weak line approximation, except that the measured values are consistently higher than the calculated emissivities at the longer wavelengths.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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1963 (2)

1962 (2)

W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 292 (1962).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ferriso, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1955 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (3)

1960 (2)

1957 (1)

J. E. Stewart and J. G. Richmond, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 59, 405 (1957).
[Crossref]

1956 (2)

1952 (2)

J. H. Taylor, W. S. Benedict, and J. Strong, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1884 (1952).
[Crossref]

D. Weber, R. J. Holm, and S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1820 (1952).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

D. F. Eggers and B. L. Crawford, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1554 (1951).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

W. Brugel, Z. Phys. 127, 400 (1950).
[Crossref]

1948 (3)

S. Silverman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 989 (1948).

E. K. Plyler, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 40, 113 (1948).
[Crossref]

E. F. Daly and G. B. B. M. Sutherland, Symp. Combust. 3rd Madison Wis.1948.

1946 (1)

E. B. Wilson and A. J. Wells, J. Chem. Phys. 14, 578 (1946).
[Crossref]

1945 (2)

A. H. Nielsen and Y. T. Rao, Phys. Rev. 68, 173 (1945).
[Crossref]

A. M. Thorndyke, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 868 (1945).
[Crossref]

1941 (1)

H. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 60, 794 (1941).
[Crossref]

1940 (1)

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 12, 175 (1940).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

A. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 53, 983 (1938).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

P. E. Martin and E. F. Barker, Phys. Rev. 41, 291 (1932).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 3, 280 (1931).
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

H. Schmidt, Ann. Phys. 42, 415 (1913).
[Crossref]

1894 (1)

F. Pashen, Wied. Ann. 52, 209 (1894).
[Crossref]

Barker, E. F.

P. E. Martin and E. F. Barker, Phys. Rev. 41, 291 (1932).
[Crossref]

Ben-Aryeh, Y.

Benedict, W. S.

J. H. Taylor, W. S. Benedict, and J. Strong, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1884 (1952).
[Crossref]

Brugel, W.

W. Brugel, Z. Phys. 127, 400 (1950).
[Crossref]

Burch, D. E.

Crawford, B. L.

D. F. Eggers and B. L. Crawford, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1554 (1951).
[Crossref]

Daly, E. F.

E. F. Daly and G. B. B. M. Sutherland, Symp. Combust. 3rd Madison Wis.1948.

Davies, W. O.

W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 292 (1962).
[Crossref]

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1373 (1961).
[Crossref]

W. O. Davies, Armour Research Foundation Report 1200-2June1962.

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, ARL Technical Report 60-312, ARDC, Wright–Patterson AFB, Ohio, December1960.

Dennison, D. M.

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 12, 175 (1940).
[Crossref]

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 3, 280 (1931).
[Crossref]

Edwards, D. K.

Eggers, D. F.

D. F. Eggers and B. L. Crawford, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1554 (1951).
[Crossref]

Ferriso, C. C.

C. C. Ferriso, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1955 (1962).
[Crossref]

Griffith, W. C.

W. C. Griffith, Phys. Rev. 102, 1209 (1956).
[Crossref]

Holm, R. J.

D. Weber, R. J. Holm, and S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1820 (1952).
[Crossref]

Howard, J. N.

Malkmus, W.

Martin, P. E.

P. E. Martin and E. F. Barker, Phys. Rev. 41, 291 (1932).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. C.

Nielsen, A. H.

A. H. Nielsen and Y. T. Rao, Phys. Rev. 68, 173 (1945).
[Crossref]

A. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 53, 983 (1938).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, H. H.

H. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 60, 794 (1941).
[Crossref]

Oppenheim, U. P.

Pashen, F.

F. Pashen, Wied. Ann. 52, 209 (1894).
[Crossref]

Penner, S. S.

D. Weber, R. J. Holm, and S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1820 (1952).
[Crossref]

Plass, G. N.

Plyler, E. K.

E. K. Plyler, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 40, 113 (1948).
[Crossref]

Rao, Y. T.

A. H. Nielsen and Y. T. Rao, Phys. Rev. 68, 173 (1945).
[Crossref]

Richmond, J. G.

J. E. Stewart and J. G. Richmond, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 59, 405 (1957).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, Ann. Phys. 42, 415 (1913).
[Crossref]

Silverman, S.

Steinberg, M.

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1373 (1961).
[Crossref]

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, ARL Technical Report 60-312, ARDC, Wright–Patterson AFB, Ohio, December1960.

Stewart, J. E.

J. E. Stewart and J. G. Richmond, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 59, 405 (1957).
[Crossref]

Strong, J.

J. H. Taylor, W. S. Benedict, and J. Strong, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1884 (1952).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, G. B. B. M.

E. F. Daly and G. B. B. M. Sutherland, Symp. Combust. 3rd Madison Wis.1948.

Taylor, J. H.

J. H. Taylor, W. S. Benedict, and J. Strong, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1884 (1952).
[Crossref]

Thorndyke, A. M.

A. M. Thorndyke, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 868 (1945).
[Crossref]

Tourin, R. H.

Weber, D.

D. Weber, R. J. Holm, and S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1820 (1952).
[Crossref]

Wells, A. J.

E. B. Wilson and A. J. Wells, J. Chem. Phys. 14, 578 (1946).
[Crossref]

Williams, D.

Wilson, E. B.

E. B. Wilson and A. J. Wells, J. Chem. Phys. 14, 578 (1946).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Schmidt, Ann. Phys. 42, 415 (1913).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (8)

J. H. Taylor, W. S. Benedict, and J. Strong, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1884 (1952).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ferriso, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1955 (1962).
[Crossref]

A. M. Thorndyke, J. Chem. Phys. 15, 868 (1945).
[Crossref]

D. F. Eggers and B. L. Crawford, J. Chem. Phys. 19, 1554 (1951).
[Crossref]

D. Weber, R. J. Holm, and S. S. Penner, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1820 (1952).
[Crossref]

E. B. Wilson and A. J. Wells, J. Chem. Phys. 14, 578 (1946).
[Crossref]

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 34, 1373 (1961).
[Crossref]

W. O. Davies, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 292 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (8)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. (2)

E. K. Plyler, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 40, 113 (1948).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stewart and J. G. Richmond, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 59, 405 (1957).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (5)

W. C. Griffith, Phys. Rev. 102, 1209 (1956).
[Crossref]

A. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 53, 983 (1938).
[Crossref]

P. E. Martin and E. F. Barker, Phys. Rev. 41, 291 (1932).
[Crossref]

H. H. Nielsen, Phys. Rev. 60, 794 (1941).
[Crossref]

A. H. Nielsen and Y. T. Rao, Phys. Rev. 68, 173 (1945).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 3, 280 (1931).
[Crossref]

D. M. Dennison, Rev. Mod. Phys. 12, 175 (1940).
[Crossref]

Symp. Combust. 3rd Madison Wis. (1)

E. F. Daly and G. B. B. M. Sutherland, Symp. Combust. 3rd Madison Wis.1948.

Wied. Ann. (1)

F. Pashen, Wied. Ann. 52, 209 (1894).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. (1)

W. Brugel, Z. Phys. 127, 400 (1950).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

W. O. Davies, Armour Research Foundation Report 1200-2June1962.

M. Steinberg and W. O. Davies, ARL Technical Report 60-312, ARDC, Wright–Patterson AFB, Ohio, December1960.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Carbon dioxide emissivity vs wavelength. Temperature = 1500°K; total pressure = 1 atm; ○, emission; ♢, absorption; Curve 1, strong line; Curve 2, weak line.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Carbon dioxide emissivity vs wavelength. Temperature = 2000°K; total pressure = 1 atm; ○, emission; ♦, absorption; Curve 1, strong line; Curve 2, weak line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Carbon dioxide emissivity vs wavelength. Temperature = 2500°K; total pressure = 1 atm; ○, emission; ♢, absorption; Curve 1, strong line; Curve 2, weak line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Carbon dioxide emissivity vs wavelength. Temperature = 3000°K; total pressure = 1 atm; ○, emission; ♢. absorption; Curve 1, strong line; Curve 2, weak line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative emittance of carbon dioxide vs total pressure. T = 2000°K; u = 0.93 atm/cm; λ = 4.40, 4.60, and 4.80 μ.

Equations (1)

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= ( A Ω / V Ω g ) E B ( λ , T ) / g B ( λ , T g )