Abstract

Since World War II the requirements of military security, space exploration, economic progress, medical advances, and assistance to underdeveloped nations have led to a rapid increase in the financial support of research and development. The increasing research program and the rapid growth in the enrollment in the colleges and universities have produced a rising demand for scientific personnel. In the field of optics this increased demand has been especially large because of new developments in optics and the consequent increase in the demand for optical specialists and optical engineers. Analysis of the supply and demand relationships in optics leads to the conclusion that special attention to this field is required and that there is a need for the development of new university programs which will increase the rate of training of optical specialists even more rapidly than that of other kinds of scientists and engineers.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Births and deaths in the U. S., 1930–1960. From “Enrollment Projections for Higher Education 1961–1978” by Ronald B. Thompson, The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers 1961.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two factors in booming college enrollment. From “Letter to a College President on the Need for a Long Range Planning” by Sidney G. Tickton. The Fund for the Advancement of Education 1963.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Funds used for basic research performance and for total research and development in the U. S., 1953–1962. * Predicted. (Courtesy National Science Foundation.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Funds used for performance of research and development in the U. S. by sector, 1953–1962. * Predicted. (Courtesy National Science Foundation.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Basic research expenditures in colleges and universities by source of funds, 1953–1962. * Preliminary. (Courtesy National Science Foundation.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of doctorates in science and engineering granted, by year, in the U. S. From “Investing the Scientific Progress 1961–1970.” National Science Foundation 1961.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Projected membership growth of the Optical Society of America. Dashed curve: based on projected growth of American Physical Society. Solid curve: actual. (Courtesy American Institute of Physics.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of scientists in the U. S. by type of employer 1962. The totals are given for the whole U. S. together with the numbers in the field of physics and astronomy and in the subfield of optics. (Courtesy National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Number of scientists in the U. S. by work activity, 1962. The totals are given for the whole U. S. together with the numbers in the field of physics and astronomy and in the subfield of optics. (Courtesy National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel.)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Number of scientists in the U. S. by highest degree, 1962. The totals are given for the whole U. S. together with the numbers in the field of physics and astronomy and in the subfield of optics. (Courtesy National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel.)