Abstract

The performance of 16 male observers who searched for an incomplete ring (Landolt C) among a number of solid rings in a square, moving field was measured. Search performance deteriorated as velocity or object density was increased; a target was more likely to be detected the closer it was to the center of the field; there was no significant correlation between the age of the observer and his search performance; there was significant correlation between foveal visual acuity and search performance in the moving field. The performance of the same observers on a previous series of tests is compared to their performance on the tests reported here. A hypothesis concerning the role of peripheral and foveal vision in searching for targets is advanced.

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  1. R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, "Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Tech. Report 55–394, Part III, April 1958.
  2. S. W. Smith, "Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-235 R, April 1961.
  3. S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, "Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-325 R, March 1962.
  4. C. W. Ericksen, "Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54–161, April 1954.
  5. S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).
  6. C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).
  7. E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799 (1958).
  8. A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
  9. E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).
  10. B. Bhatia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 283 (1963).
  11. S. Q. Duntley, "The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance," Armed Forces-National Research Council Vision Committee, January 1953.
  12. F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, Jr., "Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments," U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit,'HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July 1962.
  13. R. A. Erickson, "Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments," U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

Baker, C. A.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Bhatia, B.

B. Bhatia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 283 (1963).

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, "Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Tech. Report 55–394, Part III, April 1958.

Burg, A.

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).

Caro, Jr., P. W.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, Jr., "Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments," U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit,'HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July 1962.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, "The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance," Armed Forces-National Research Council Vision Committee, January 1953.

Elkin, E. H.

E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).

Elworth, C.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, "Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Tech. Report 55–394, Part III, April 1958.

Ericksen, C. W.

C. W. Ericksen, "Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54–161, April 1954.

Erickson, R. A.

R. A. Erickson, "Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments," U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

Hulbert, S.

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).

Kincaid, W. M.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, "Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-325 R, March 1962.

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799 (1958).

Miller, J. W.

E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799 (1958).

Morris, D. F.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Palmer, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, "Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Tech. Report 55–394, Part III, April 1958.

Semmelroth, C.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, "Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-325 R, March 1962.

Smith, S. W.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, "Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-325 R, March 1962.

S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).

S. W. Smith, "Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-235 R, April 1961.

Steedman, W. C.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Thomas, F. H.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, Jr., "Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments," U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit,'HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July 1962.

Other (13)

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, "Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Tech. Report 55–394, Part III, April 1958.

S. W. Smith, "Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-235 R, April 1961.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, "Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements," Institute of Science and Technology, University of Michigan, Report No. 2900-325 R, March 1962.

C. W. Ericksen, "Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search," Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54–161, April 1954.

S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799 (1958).

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).

E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).

B. Bhatia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 283 (1963).

S. Q. Duntley, "The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance," Armed Forces-National Research Council Vision Committee, January 1953.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, Jr., "Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments," U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit,'HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July 1962.

R. A. Erickson, "Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments," U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

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