Abstract

The performance of 16 male observers who searched for an incomplete ring (Landolt C) among a number of solid rings in a square, moving field was measured. Search performance deteriorated as velocity or object density was increased; a target was more likely to be detected the closer it was to the center of the field; there was no significant correlation between the age of the observer and his search performance; there was significant correlation between foveal visual acuity and search performance in the moving field. The performance of the same observers on a previous series of tests is compared to their performance on the tests reported here. A hypothesis concerning the role of peripheral and foveal vision in searching for targets is advanced.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, “Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance,” , Part III, April1958.
  2. S. W. Smith, “Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display,” , April1961.
  3. S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, “Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements,” , March1962.
  4. C. W. Ericksen, “Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search,” Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54-161, April1954.
  5. S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).
  7. E. Ludvigh and J. W. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 799 (1958).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).
  10. B. Bhatia, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 283 (1963).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Q. Duntley, “The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance,” Armed Forces–National Research CouncilVision Committee, January1953.
  12. F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, “Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments,” U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit, HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July1962.
  13. R. A. Erickson, “Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments,” U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).

1961 (2)

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
[Crossref]

S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

1958 (1)

Baker, C. A.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Bhatia, B.

Boynton, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, “Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance,” , Part III, April1958.

Burg, A.

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
[Crossref]

Caro, P. W.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, “Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments,” U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit, HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July1962.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, “The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance,” Armed Forces–National Research CouncilVision Committee, January1953.

Elkin, E. H.

E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).

Elworth, C.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, “Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance,” , Part III, April1958.

Ericksen, C. W.

C. W. Ericksen, “Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search,” Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54-161, April1954.

Erickson, R. A.

R. A. Erickson, “Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments,” U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

Hulbert, S.

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
[Crossref]

Kincaid, W. M.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, “Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements,” , March1962.

Ludvigh, E.

Miller, J. W.

Morris, D. F.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Palmer, R. M.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, “Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance,” , Part III, April1958.

Semmelroth, C.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, “Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements,” , March1962.

Smith, S. W.

S. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1462 (1961).
[Crossref]

S. W. Smith, “Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display,” , April1961.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, “Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements,” , March1962.

Steedman, W. C.

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

Thomas, F. H.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, “Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments,” U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit, HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July1962.

Human Factors (1)

C. A. Baker, D. F. Morris, and W. C. Steedman, Human Factors 2, 51 (1960).

J. Appl. Psychol. (1)

A. Burg and S. Hulbert, J. Appl. Psychol. 45, 111 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Engr. Psychol. (1)

E. H. Elkin, J. Engr. Psychol. 1, 26 (1962).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Other (7)

S. Q. Duntley, “The Limiting Capabilities of Unaided Human Vision in Aerial Reconnaissance,” Armed Forces–National Research CouncilVision Committee, January1953.

F. H. Thomas and P. W. Caro, “Training Research on Low Altitude Visual Aerial Observation: A Description of Five Field Experiments,” U. S. Army Aviation Human Research Unit, HumRRO Research Memorandum 8, Fort Rucker, Alabama, July1962.

R. A. Erickson, “Air-to-Ground Visual Detection of Targets: Analysis and Experiments,” U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, to be published as NAVWEPS Report 8406, NOTS TP 3328, unclassified.

R. M. Boynton, C. Elworth, and R. M. Palmer, “Laboratory Studies Pertaining to Visual Air Reconnaissance,” , Part III, April1958.

S. W. Smith, “Time Required for Target Detection in Complex Abstract Visual Display,” , April1961.

S. W. Smith, W. M. Kincaid, and C. Semmelroth, “Speed of Visual Target Detection as a Function of the Density of Confusion Elements,” , March1962.

C. W. Ericksen, “Partitioning and Saturation of the Perceptual Field and Efficiency of Visual Search,” Wright Air Development Center, WADC Report 54-161, April1954.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ring-location matrix of 16 cells, with 36 possible ring locations in each cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Search displays showing the three object densities used: 16 (a), 32 (b), and 48 (c). Targets indicated by arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of the experimental setup. Width of belt is not drawn to scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Search performance as a function of field velocity and object density: △ 16, ○ 32, □ 48.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of search performance on static and dynamic fields, for “equal” exposure times. □ Moving target. ○ Stationary target.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of times a target was missed versus its distance in inches from center of the field. Field velocity: 5 deg/sec. Object density: △ 16, ○ 32, □ 48.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Number of times a target was missed versus its distance in inches from center of the field. Field velocity: 7 deg/sec. Object density: △ 16, ○ 32, □ 48.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Number of times a target was missed versus its distance in inches from center of the field. Field velocity: 10 deg/sec. Object density: △ 16, ○ 32, □ 48.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Probability of detecting a target, as a function of its velocity and distance in inches from center of the field.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mean search time versus object density in the static field. This study □; first study13 ○.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the correlation coefficients between foveal acuity □ and search performance and peripheral acuity ○ and search performance, for various velocities.

Tables (5)

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Table I Score reliability.

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Table II Variable correlations.a

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Table III Correlation coefficient between the number of times a target was missed and its distance from the center of the field.

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Table IV Search methods in a static field.a

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Table V Target location distribution.