Abstract

A technique for measuring changes in the refractive power of the eye in experimental animals is described. This technique makes use of near infrared beam collimated on the retina and recorded, after reflection from it, by a photocell system. The output of the photocell system is related linearly to the changes in accommodation. The effects of fluctuations in source intensity, and of electrical pickup of noise, are rendered negligible by a special arrangement of the photocells. The system offers high sensitivity and stability, without requiring mechanical or optical modulation of the infrared beam. It employs relatively inexpensive, commercially available components. The optical properties of the cat’s eye are discussed, as are also the requirements for application of this technique. The possibility of accommodation by axial movement of the lens, and measurement of such movement by the present system, are considered. A procedure for objective calibration in diopters is described. The technique has been employed in experimental work on the cat. The smallest biological signals are significantly greater than the threshold of the system, which is about 0.01 diopter.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

1963 (1)

Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat’s eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication:G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (6)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, and E. J. Ashley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1245 (1962).
[Crossref]

N. Roth, Am. J. Optom. 39, 356 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Krauskopf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1046 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (2)

V. B. Morris and F. H. C. Marriott, Nature 190, 176 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).

1960 (1)

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Rev. Opt. 39, 195 (1960).

1959 (5)

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 268 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579 (1959).

D. W. DeMott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 571 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

1955 (1)

1954 (3)

R. M. Boynton, J. M. Enoch, and W. R. Bush, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 879 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1954).

R. A. Weale, Nature 173, 1049 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 30 (1953).

1952 (1)

1951 (1)

R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1936 (1)

E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 456 (1936).
[Crossref]

1922 (1)

H. Hartridge and K. Yamada, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 481 (1922).
[Crossref]

1915 (1)

H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B89, 58 (1915).

Affanni, J.

J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).

Arnulf, A.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Rev. Opt. 39, 195 (1960).

Ashley, E. J.

Baum, J. L.

H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett and J. L. Francis, “Visual Optics,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, pp. 3–208.

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

Bishop, P. O.

Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat’s eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication:G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).
[Crossref]

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).

Boynton, R. M.

Breinin, G. M.

H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).

Bush, W. R.

Campbell, F. W.

Chin, N. B.

DeMott, D. W.

Duke-Elder, S.

S. Duke-Elder, System of Ophthalmology. Vol. I. The Eye in Evolution (Henry Kimpton, London, 1958), pp. 638–666.

Dupuy, O.

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Rev. Opt. 39, 195 (1960).

Elul, R.

R. Elul and P. L. Marchiafava, Arch. Ital. Biol. (1964) (to be published).

Enoch, J. M.

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 456 (1936).
[Crossref]

Flamant, F.

F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1954).

Francis, J. L.

A. G. Bennett and J. L. Francis, “Visual Optics,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, pp. 3–208.

Gunter, R.

R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harding, H. G. W.

R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartridge, H.

H. Hartridge and K. Yamada, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 481 (1922).
[Crossref]

H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B89, 58 (1915).

Hill, A. V.

H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B89, 58 (1915).

Horn, R. E.

Kozak, W.

Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat’s eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication:G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).
[Crossref]

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).

Krauskopf, J.

Kuffler, S. W.

Le Grand, Y.

Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique, Vol. I, La Dioptrique de l’Oeil et sa Correction (Editions Revue d’Optique, Paris1952), cf. pp. 68–69.

Marchiafava, P. L.

J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).

R. Elul and P. L. Marchiafava, Arch. Ital. Biol. (1964) (to be published).

Marriott, F. H. C.

V. B. Morris and F. H. C. Marriott, Nature 190, 176 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).

Morris, V. B.

V. B. Morris and F. H. C. Marriott, Nature 190, 176 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).

Pirenne, M. H.

F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).

Ripps, H.

H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579 (1959).

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 268 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, N.

N. Roth, Am. J. Optom. 39, 356 (1962).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talbot, S. A.

Vakkur, G. J.

Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat’s eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication:G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).
[Crossref]

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, Nature 173, 1049 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 30 (1953).

Westheimer, G.

G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1326 (1962).
[Crossref]

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579 (1959).

F. W. Campbell and G. Westheimer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 568 (1959).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whiteside, T. C. D.

T. C. D. Whiteside, Problems of Vision in Flight at High Altitude (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1957).

Wulfeck, J. W.

Yamada, K.

H. Hartridge and K. Yamada, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 481 (1922).
[Crossref]

Zernicki, B.

J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).

Am. J. Optom. (1)

N. Roth, Am. J. Optom. 39, 356 (1962).
[Crossref]

Arch. Ital. Biol. (1)

J. Affanni, P. L. Marchiafava, and B. Zernicki, Arch. Ital. Biol. 100, 297 (1962).

Brit. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Hartridge and K. Yamada, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 481 (1922).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

J. Physiol. (London) (4)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. (London) 119, 30 (1953).

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, J. Physiol. (London) 145, 579 (1959).

F. H. C. Marriott, V. B. Morris, and M. H. Pirenne, J. Physiol. (London) 146, 179 (1959).

P. O. Bishop, W. Kozak, and G. J. Vakkur, J. Physiol. (London) 163, 466 (1962).

Nature (3)

V. B. Morris and F. H. C. Marriott, Nature 190, 176 (1961).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weale, Nature 173, 1049 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gunter, H. G. W. Harding, and W. S. Stiles, Nature 168, 293 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

E. F. Fincham, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 49, 456 (1936).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) (1)

H. Hartridge and A. V. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) B89, 58 (1915).

Rev. Opt. (2)

F. Flamant, Rev. Opt. 34, 433 (1954).

A. Arnulf and O. Dupuy, Rev. Opt. 39, 195 (1960).

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. (1)

H. Ripps, G. M. Breinin, and J. L. Baum, Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 59, 176 (1961).

Vision Res. (1)

Note added in proof. Comprehensive information on the optical properties of the cat’s eye became available since the present manuscript was submitted for publication:G. J. Vakkur, P. O. Bishop, and W. Kozak, Vision Res. 3, 289 (1963); G. J. Vakkur and P. O. Bishop, Vision Res. 3, 357 (1963).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

R. Elul and P. L. Marchiafava, Arch. Ital. Biol. (1964) (to be published).

A. G. Bennett and J. L. Francis, “Visual Optics,” in The Eye, edited by H. Davson (Academic Press, New York, 1962), Vol. IV, pp. 3–208.

Y. Le Grand, Optique Physiologique, Vol. I, La Dioptrique de l’Oeil et sa Correction (Editions Revue d’Optique, Paris1952), cf. pp. 68–69.

S. Duke-Elder, System of Ophthalmology. Vol. I. The Eye in Evolution (Henry Kimpton, London, 1958), pp. 638–666.

T. C. D. Whiteside, Problems of Vision in Flight at High Altitude (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1957).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating (a) the path of the rays entering the eye (upper drawing), and (b) the formation of the secondary extraocular image by rays reflected from the retina (lower drawing).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A scheme of the practical arrangment of the optical system. The energy radiated by source S (upper drawing), is collected by condenser L1, and then passed through diaphragm D, which acts as the limiting stop. The two ray pencils are filtered by an infrared filter (not shown), converged by L2 to focus at the plane of the exit pupil EP which has, therefore, no effect on ingoing rays, and enter the eye. The irradiated spots on the retina serve as secondary sources for the secondary, extraocular image (lower drawing). The outgoing rays are limited by the exit pupil EP, and collected by L3 to fall upon the two photocells PC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photocell arrangement in relation to the irradiated spots (stippled rectangles). The simultaneous separation or mutual approach of the irradiated spots during accommodation is indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A typical record of accommodative reaction in the awake cat, on presentation of a distant object. Note simultaneous dilatation of pupil,30 as well as the aroused EEG. Dioptric calibration from same experiment. Time calibration: horizontal bar at right-hand top equals 2 sec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of forward displacement of the principal planes by Δl. Initial state shown by dashed lines. Note alteration in transverse magnification of the retinal image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical parameters of eye of cat and man.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h = h { 1 - ( 1 / F ) [ ( 1 / l ) + F ] } .
h = - b h [ A + ( 1 / l ) ] .
h Δ = h [ l - Δ l l - ( 1 l + l - Δ l l F ) a + Δ l n ] .
h Δ = - b h [ 1 l + l - Δ l l ( F - n a + Δ l ) ] .