Abstract

A null-type photoelectric universal polarimeter (or ellipsometer) utilizing Faraday cells and a quarter-wave plate is described and its precision evaluated. For elliptically polarized light of small circularity (i.e., almost linearly polarized), the azimuth could be determined with a precision of 10 sec and the circularity to within 20 sec of arc. For light of large circularity (on the order of 35 deg), the corresponding precisions were 7 min (0.12 deg) for azimuth and 14 min (0.24 deg) for circularity. Errors due to a nonexact quarter-wave plate and nonperfect alignment of the compensator with respect to the elliptically polarized light are discussed. The use of this instrument as a high-precision Sénarmont compensator for the measurement of birefringence is also described.

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  1. C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 491 (1925).
  2. P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, S. B. thesis, Department of Physics, MIT (1951) (unpublished).
  3. A. C. Hardy, P. J. Fopiano, and M. B. Trageser, U. S. Patent No. 2,974,561, "Polarimeter" (1961).
  4. E. J. Gillham, Nature 179, 1412 (1956).
  5. E. J. Gillham, J. Sci. Instr. 34, 435 (1957).
  6. J. W. Gates, Chem. Ind. (London) 1958, 190.
  7. M. Billardon and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 248, 2466 (1959).
  8. V. A. Kizel and V. I. Permogorov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 10, 541 (1961) [Engl. Transl. Opt. Spectry. 10, 281 (1961)].
  9. H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 462, 1146 (1961); 52, 718 (1962).
  10. H. Wenking, Z. Instrumentenk. 66, 1 (1958).
  11. B. Zimm, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 360 (1958).
  12. H. Wayland, Compt. Rend. 249, 1228 (1959).
  13. H. Wayland and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 250, 688 (1960).
  14. R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).
  15. C. V. Kent and J. Lawson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 117 (1937).
  16. J. F. Archard, P. L. Clegg, and A. M. Taylor, Research 3, 339 (1950).
  17. C. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 681 (1963).
  18. A complete description of the apparatus developed here has been given in an MIT Plastics Research Laboratory report (15 June 1961) which is available from the present authors.
  19. E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106 (1955).
  20. D. Bergman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1080 (1962).

Adams, L. H.

R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).

Andrews, R. D.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106 (1955).

Archard, J. F.

J. F. Archard, P. L. Clegg, and A. M. Taylor, Research 3, 339 (1950).

Badoz, J.

H. Wayland and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 250, 688 (1960).

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 248, 2466 (1959).

Bergman, D.

D. Bergman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1080 (1962).

Billardon, M.

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 248, 2466 (1959).

Clegg, P. L.

J. F. Archard, P. L. Clegg, and A. M. Taylor, Research 3, 339 (1950).

Fopiano, P. J.

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, S. B. thesis, Department of Physics, MIT (1951) (unpublished).

A. C. Hardy, P. J. Fopiano, and M. B. Trageser, U. S. Patent No. 2,974,561, "Polarimeter" (1961).

Gates, J. W.

J. W. Gates, Chem. Ind. (London) 1958, 190.

Gillham, E. J.

E. J. Gillham, Nature 179, 1412 (1956).

E. J. Gillham, J. Sci. Instr. 34, 435 (1957).

Goranson, R. W.

R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).

Gurnee, E. F.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106 (1955).

Hardy, A. C.

A. C. Hardy, P. J. Fopiano, and M. B. Trageser, U. S. Patent No. 2,974,561, "Polarimeter" (1961).

Kent, C. V.

C. V. Kent and J. Lawson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 117 (1937).

Kizel, V. A.

V. A. Kizel and V. I. Permogorov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 10, 541 (1961) [Engl. Transl. Opt. Spectry. 10, 281 (1961)].

Lawson, J.

C. V. Kent and J. Lawson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 117 (1937).

Patterson, L. T.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106 (1955).

Permogorov, V. I.

V. A. Kizel and V. I. Permogorov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 10, 541 (1961) [Engl. Transl. Opt. Spectry. 10, 281 (1961)].

Robinson, C. C.

C. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 681 (1963).

Skinner, C. A.

C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 491 (1925).

Takasaki, H.

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 462, 1146 (1961); 52, 718 (1962).

Taylor, A. M.

J. F. Archard, P. L. Clegg, and A. M. Taylor, Research 3, 339 (1950).

Trageser, M. B.

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, S. B. thesis, Department of Physics, MIT (1951) (unpublished).

A. C. Hardy, P. J. Fopiano, and M. B. Trageser, U. S. Patent No. 2,974,561, "Polarimeter" (1961).

Wayland, H.

H. Wayland, Compt. Rend. 249, 1228 (1959).

H. Wayland and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 250, 688 (1960).

Wenking, H.

H. Wenking, Z. Instrumentenk. 66, 1 (1958).

Zimm, B.

B. Zimm, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 360 (1958).

Other (20)

C. A. Skinner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. and Rev. Sci. Instr. 10, 491 (1925).

P. J. Fopiano and M. B. Trageser, S. B. thesis, Department of Physics, MIT (1951) (unpublished).

A. C. Hardy, P. J. Fopiano, and M. B. Trageser, U. S. Patent No. 2,974,561, "Polarimeter" (1961).

E. J. Gillham, Nature 179, 1412 (1956).

E. J. Gillham, J. Sci. Instr. 34, 435 (1957).

J. W. Gates, Chem. Ind. (London) 1958, 190.

M. Billardon and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 248, 2466 (1959).

V. A. Kizel and V. I. Permogorov, Opt. i Spektroskopiya 10, 541 (1961) [Engl. Transl. Opt. Spectry. 10, 281 (1961)].

H. Takasaki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 462, 1146 (1961); 52, 718 (1962).

H. Wenking, Z. Instrumentenk. 66, 1 (1958).

B. Zimm, Rev. Sci. Instr. 29, 360 (1958).

H. Wayland, Compt. Rend. 249, 1228 (1959).

H. Wayland and J. Badoz, Compt. Rend. 250, 688 (1960).

R. W. Goranson and L. H. Adams, J. Franklin Inst. 216, 475 (1933).

C. V. Kent and J. Lawson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27, 117 (1937).

J. F. Archard, P. L. Clegg, and A. M. Taylor, Research 3, 339 (1950).

C. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 681 (1963).

A complete description of the apparatus developed here has been given in an MIT Plastics Research Laboratory report (15 June 1961) which is available from the present authors.

E. F. Gurnee, L. T. Patterson, and R. D. Andrews, J. Appl. Phys. 26, 1106 (1955).

D. Bergman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1080 (1962).

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