Abstract

Holograms of transparencies have been produced in diffused light. The reconstructions are free from flaws and are of a quality comparable to pictures produced by conventional photography with incoherent light. Holograms of three-dimensional scenes have been produced by reflected light. Such holograms produce three-dimensional reconstructions having all the visual properties of the original scene: parallax between near and distant objects, a requirement to refocus the eyes when viewing objects in different parts of the scene, and a stereo effect equal to that of ordinary stereo photography.

© 1964 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948);Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  3. A technique used by Kirkpatrick and El-Sum goes far toward minimizing these flaws by rotating in a continuous manner some of the optical elements about the optical system axis; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 825 (1956).
  4. This idea is similar to the theta-modulation concept, as described by A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1351 (1963).
  5. The use of this technique as an aid to producing holograms was suggested and demonstrated to the authors by F. B. Rotz.
  6. It has been pointed out, by an anonymous reviewer, that an object illuminated by monochromatic light in three primary colors may not produce the same color rendition as would the object if illuminated by ordinary white light. This could happen if the wavelength variation of object transmittance or reflectance were not a smooth, slowly varying function of wavelength.
  7. G. Lippman, J. Phys. 3, 97 (1894).

1963 (2)

E. Leith and J. Upatnieks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1377 (1963).
[Crossref]

This idea is similar to the theta-modulation concept, as described by A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1351 (1963).

1956 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948);Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[Crossref]

1894 (1)

G. Lippman, J. Phys. 3, 97 (1894).

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948);Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[Crossref]

Leith, E.

Lippman, G.

G. Lippman, J. Phys. 3, 97 (1894).

Lohmann, A.

This idea is similar to the theta-modulation concept, as described by A. Lohmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1351 (1963).

Upatnieks, J.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Lippman, J. Phys. 3, 97 (1894).

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948);Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A197, 454 (1949).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

The use of this technique as an aid to producing holograms was suggested and demonstrated to the authors by F. B. Rotz.

It has been pointed out, by an anonymous reviewer, that an object illuminated by monochromatic light in three primary colors may not produce the same color rendition as would the object if illuminated by ordinary white light. This could happen if the wavelength variation of object transmittance or reflectance were not a smooth, slowly varying function of wavelength.

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Figures (9)

F. 1
F. 1

Methods of introducing the reference beam. In (a), a prism is used; in (b), a pair of mirrors are used; in (c), a lens, prism, and pinhole in combination are used.

F. 2
F. 2

Hologram of two transparencies which were illuminated with diffused coherent light. The transparencies were placed 14 and 24 in. from the hologram recording plate, in such positions that neither obscured the other when viewed from the position where the hologram was recorded.

F. 3
F. 3

Reconstructions of two transparencies which were recorded in the hologram shown in Fig. 2.

F. 4
F. 4

Fraunhofer diffraction method. Semi-diffusing ground glass at P1 causes, at P2, a bright spot on axis, surrounded by-diffused light. An opaque mask at P2 has two openings: a pinhole on axis which passes the focused spot of nondiffused light, and an off-axis aperture in which the object transparency S (ξ,η) is placed. The hologram is made at plane P3.

F. 5
F. 5

Reconstruction of a Fraunhofer diffraction hologram. Both real and virtual images form at infinity and are thus located in the same plane, but in axially symmetric positions.

F. 6
F. 6

System for making a hologram in reflected light. The hologram recording plate receives light reflected from the object and from the mirror.

F. 7
F. 7

Diagram showing geometry of objects in the real and virtual images. This diagram is presented as an aid to the text in describing a curious property of the real image.

F. 8
F. 8

Photograph of a three-dimensional reconstruction of a model train engine. This photograph was made from the real image after stopping the hologram from its full f/4 aperture down to about f/48. Note that even at this aperture the foreground is unsharp.

F. 9
F. 9

Reconstruction of a three-dimensional silhouetted scene, consisting of plastic letters about 1.5 in. high and two metal statues about 4 in. high. The virtual image was photographed using a camera with the lens stop at f/8 for (a) and (b); these two photographs were made with the camera at different positions in order to show the parallax between near and far objects. Photographs (c) and (d) were taken with the camera lens at f/2.3, which decreased the focal depth. The camera was focused on different planes in (c) and (d). Note that in (c), only the word of is in sharp focus, and in (d), only the head and one arm are in sharp focus.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t ( x , y ) = a 0 + n ( x , y ) ,
T ( ξ , η ) = a 0 δ ( ξ , η ) + N ( ξ , η ) ,
χ ( x , y ) = a 0 + n ( x , y ) * s ( x , y ) ,
| χ ( x , y ) | 2 = | a 0 | 2 + | s 0 ( x , y ) | 2 + a 0 s 0 ( x , y ) + a 0 s 0 * ( x , y ) ,