Abstract

A new optical method for the precise determination of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts has been developed. A selective method of excitation, accomplished by means of a source of a single isotope operated in a magnetic field, allows the various hyperfine components to be recorded one or a few at a time. These features permit the use of long interferometers (ours were about 218 mm) of high resolving power where the whole order difference between two of the components may be very large. The isotope shifts in the 2537-Å line of mercury have been measured with a precision unequalled previously. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes has been measured with equal precision, though in this case the precision is less than that which has been achieved by radio frequency, double-resonance experiments. Our results are in good agreement with the double-resonance results, a fact which gives added confidence in our isotope shift results. The structure of the line relative to the isotope 198 is: 199A(-513.99±40.43); 204(-510.77±0.43); 201a(-488.96±0.33); 202(-336.964±0.15); 200(-160.29±0.15); 201b(-22.564-0.09); 198(0.00); 199B(224.40±0.23); 201c(229.23±0.51); where the units are millikaysers. The stated limits indicate the spread of the individual determinations about the mean value of the quantity as measured by their standard deviations. The magnetic dipole interaction constants for the 6<sup>3</sup><i>P</i><sub>1</sub>° state are: A(199) =492.24±0.20 mK and A(201) = -181.88±0.13 mK. The nuclear magnetic moments calculated from these constants by means of the theory of Breit and Wills for intermediate coupling are: µ<sub><i>I</i></sub>(199) =0.450 nm and µ<sub><i>I</i></sub>(210) = -0.499 nm. The agreement between these values and the nuclear magnetic resonance values of Cagnac and Brossel (about 10%) is presumably an indication of the reliability of the theory for this case. The electric quadrupole interaction constant for the 6<sup>3</sup><i>P</i><sub>1</sub><sup>0</sup>, state of Hg<sup>201</sup> is <i>B</i>= -9.35±0.18 mK. This leads to the value for the quadrupole moment: <i>Q</i>=0.49 barn.

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  1. W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 692 (1961).
  2. P. Jacquinot and C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Natl. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 2, 91 (1948).
  3. In Eq. (1) we have neglected the index of refraction of air in the interferometer since in all of the situations we are contemplating there will be so little air inside the interferometer that the index will be negligibly different from unity.
  4. R. L. Barger and K. W. Meissner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 22 (1958).
  5. J. Blaise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1130 (1959).
  6. P. L. Sagalyn, A. C. Melissinos, and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).
  7. K. W. Meissner, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14, 68 (1942).
  8. R. L. Barger and K. G. Kessler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 651 (1960).
  9. K. G. Kessler, R. L. Barger, and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., IRE Trans. Instr. 7, 181 (1958).
  10. R. Minkowski and H. Bruk, Z. Physik 95, 274 (1935).
  11. K. G. Kessler and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 199 (1959).
  12. For more detail refer to the author's Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, 1962 (unpublished).
  13. H. B. G. Casimir, On the Interaction between Atomic Nuclei and Electrons (Teylers Tweede Genootshap, Haarlem, 1936).
  14. C. Stager and R. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 5, 274 (1960).
  15. A comprehensive review of this material may be found in H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1958).
  16. J. Blaise, Ann. Phys. 3, 1019 (1958).
  17. A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).
  18. K . Murakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 14, 1624 (1959).
  19. S. Goudsmit, Phys. Rev. 43, 636 (1933).
  20. E. Fermi and E. Segré, Z. Physik 82, 729 (1933).
  21. J. Rosenthal and G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 41, 459 (1932).
  22. M. F. Crawford and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 76, 1310 (1949).
  23. A. Bohr and V. Weisskopf, Phys. Rev. 77, 94 (1950).
  24. G. Breit and L. A. Wills, Phys. Rev. 44, 470 (1933).
  25. J. Brossel and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).
  26. W. G. Proctor and F. C. Yu, Phys. Rev. 81, 20 (1951).
  27. B. Cagnac and J. Brossel, Compt. Rend. 249, 77 (1959).
  28. J. Blaise and H. Chantrel, J. Phys. Radium 18, 193 (1957).
  29. H. C. Wolfe, Phys. Rev. 41, 443 (1932).
  30. M. McDermott and W. L. Lichten, Phys. Rev. 119, 134 (1960).
  31. R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 95, 736 (1954).
  32. R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 105, 158 (1957).
  33. H. G. Dehmelt, H. Robinson, and W. Gordy, Phys. Rev. 93, 480 (1954).
  34. R. V. Pound and G. K. Wertheim, Phys. Rev. 102, 396 (1956).

Barger, R. L.

K. G. Kessler, R. L. Barger, and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., IRE Trans. Instr. 7, 181 (1958).

R. L. Barger and K. G. Kessler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 651 (1960).

R. L. Barger and K. W. Meissner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 22 (1958).

Bitter, F.

P. L. Sagalyn, A. C. Melissinos, and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).

J. Brossel and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, Ann. Phys. 3, 1019 (1958).

J. Blaise and H. Chantrel, J. Phys. Radium 18, 193 (1957).

J. Blaise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1130 (1959).

Bohr, A.

A. Bohr and V. Weisskopf, Phys. Rev. 77, 94 (1950).

Breit, G.

J. Rosenthal and G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 41, 459 (1932).

G. Breit and L. A. Wills, Phys. Rev. 44, 470 (1933).

Brossel, J.

B. Cagnac and J. Brossel, Compt. Rend. 249, 77 (1959).

J. Brossel and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).

Bruk, H.

R. Minkowski and H. Bruk, Z. Physik 95, 274 (1935).

Cagnac, B.

B. Cagnac and J. Brossel, Compt. Rend. 249, 77 (1959).

Casimir, H. B. G.

H. B. G. Casimir, On the Interaction between Atomic Nuclei and Electrons (Teylers Tweede Genootshap, Haarlem, 1936).

Chantrel, H.

J. Blaise and H. Chantrel, J. Phys. Radium 18, 193 (1957).

Crawford, M. F.

M. F. Crawford and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 76, 1310 (1949).

Dehmelt, H. G.

H. G. Dehmelt, H. Robinson, and W. Gordy, Phys. Rev. 93, 480 (1954).

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot and C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Natl. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 2, 91 (1948).

Fermi, E.

E. Fermi and E. Segré, Z. Physik 82, 729 (1933).

Gordy, W.

H. G. Dehmelt, H. Robinson, and W. Gordy, Phys. Rev. 93, 480 (1954).

Goudsmit, S.

S. Goudsmit, Phys. Rev. 43, 636 (1933).

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot and C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Natl. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 2, 91 (1948).

Kessler, K. G.

K. G. Kessler, R. L. Barger, and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., IRE Trans. Instr. 7, 181 (1958).

R. L. Barger and K. G. Kessler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 651 (1960).

K. G. Kessler and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 199 (1959).

Kohler, R.

C. Stager and R. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 5, 274 (1960).

Kopfermann, H.

A comprehensive review of this material may be found in H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1958).

Lichten, W. L.

M. McDermott and W. L. Lichten, Phys. Rev. 119, 134 (1960).

McDermott, M.

M. McDermott and W. L. Lichten, Phys. Rev. 119, 134 (1960).

Meissner, K. W.

K. W. Meissner, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14, 68 (1942).

R. L. Barger and K. W. Meissner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 22 (1958).

Melissinos, A. C.

P. L. Sagalyn, A. C. Melissinos, and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).

A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).

Minkowski, R.

R. Minkowski and H. Bruk, Z. Physik 95, 274 (1935).

Murakawa, K .

K . Murakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 14, 1624 (1959).

Pound, R. V.

R. V. Pound and G. K. Wertheim, Phys. Rev. 102, 396 (1956).

Proctor, W. G.

W. G. Proctor and F. C. Yu, Phys. Rev. 81, 20 (1951).

Robinson, H.

H. G. Dehmelt, H. Robinson, and W. Gordy, Phys. Rev. 93, 480 (1954).

Rosenthal, J.

J. Rosenthal and G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 41, 459 (1932).

Sagalyn, P. L.

P. L. Sagalyn, A. C. Melissinos, and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).

Schawlow, A. L.

M. F. Crawford and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 76, 1310 (1949).

Schweitzer, Jr., W. G.

W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 692 (1961).

K. G. Kessler, R. L. Barger, and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., IRE Trans. Instr. 7, 181 (1958).

K. G. Kessler and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 199 (1959).

Segré, E.

E. Fermi and E. Segré, Z. Physik 82, 729 (1933).

Stager, C.

C. Stager and R. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 5, 274 (1960).

Sternheimer, R. M.

R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 105, 158 (1957).

R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 95, 736 (1954).

Weisskopf, V.

A. Bohr and V. Weisskopf, Phys. Rev. 77, 94 (1950).

Wertheim, G. K.

R. V. Pound and G. K. Wertheim, Phys. Rev. 102, 396 (1956).

Wills, L. A.

G. Breit and L. A. Wills, Phys. Rev. 44, 470 (1933).

Wolfe, H. C.

H. C. Wolfe, Phys. Rev. 41, 443 (1932).

Yu, F. C.

W. G. Proctor and F. C. Yu, Phys. Rev. 81, 20 (1951).

Other

W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 692 (1961).

P. Jacquinot and C. Dufour, J. Rech. Centre Natl. Rech. Sci. Lab. Bellevue (Paris) 2, 91 (1948).

In Eq. (1) we have neglected the index of refraction of air in the interferometer since in all of the situations we are contemplating there will be so little air inside the interferometer that the index will be negligibly different from unity.

R. L. Barger and K. W. Meissner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 22 (1958).

J. Blaise, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 1130 (1959).

P. L. Sagalyn, A. C. Melissinos, and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 109, 375 (1958).

K. W. Meissner, Rev. Mod. Phys. 14, 68 (1942).

R. L. Barger and K. G. Kessler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 651 (1960).

K. G. Kessler, R. L. Barger, and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., IRE Trans. Instr. 7, 181 (1958).

R. Minkowski and H. Bruk, Z. Physik 95, 274 (1935).

K. G. Kessler and W. G. Schweitzer, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 199 (1959).

For more detail refer to the author's Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, 1962 (unpublished).

H. B. G. Casimir, On the Interaction between Atomic Nuclei and Electrons (Teylers Tweede Genootshap, Haarlem, 1936).

C. Stager and R. Kohler, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 5, 274 (1960).

A comprehensive review of this material may be found in H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1958).

J. Blaise, Ann. Phys. 3, 1019 (1958).

A. C. Melissinos, Phys. Rev. 115, 126 (1959).

K . Murakawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 14, 1624 (1959).

S. Goudsmit, Phys. Rev. 43, 636 (1933).

E. Fermi and E. Segré, Z. Physik 82, 729 (1933).

J. Rosenthal and G. Breit, Phys. Rev. 41, 459 (1932).

M. F. Crawford and A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 76, 1310 (1949).

A. Bohr and V. Weisskopf, Phys. Rev. 77, 94 (1950).

G. Breit and L. A. Wills, Phys. Rev. 44, 470 (1933).

J. Brossel and F. Bitter, Phys. Rev. 86, 308 (1952).

W. G. Proctor and F. C. Yu, Phys. Rev. 81, 20 (1951).

B. Cagnac and J. Brossel, Compt. Rend. 249, 77 (1959).

J. Blaise and H. Chantrel, J. Phys. Radium 18, 193 (1957).

H. C. Wolfe, Phys. Rev. 41, 443 (1932).

M. McDermott and W. L. Lichten, Phys. Rev. 119, 134 (1960).

R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 95, 736 (1954).

R. M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 105, 158 (1957).

H. G. Dehmelt, H. Robinson, and W. Gordy, Phys. Rev. 93, 480 (1954).

R. V. Pound and G. K. Wertheim, Phys. Rev. 102, 396 (1956).

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