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Amblyopia (Greek, "blunt sight") is a loose term applied to cases of low visual acuity not explainable by obvious structural or optical abnormality. It is usually unilateral often being associated with a large difference in refractive error between the two eyes or with a deviation (heterotropia) of the amblyopic eye. Monocular fixation with an amblyopic eye is generally unsteady and often nonfoveal.
An equation which permits calculation of visual efficiency (E) from the minimum angle of resolution (A) is log E=2.0777-0.0771A.
There is no evidence that the basis of amblyopia is unsharp retinal imagery. A small artificial pupil does not improve the acuity of an amblyopic eye. Amblyopes are often quite insistent that imagery with the affected eye is not "blurred" in comparison with the normal eye. Placing an added lens of +0.25 or +0.50 D. before an amblyopic eye will usually evoke a response of "blur."
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