Abstract

Detecting the position of the gap in a Landolt C is adversely affected by black bars placed tangential to the C and at a certain distance from it. The maximum bar separation affording interaction is proportional to the minimum angle of resolution, even in cases of amblyopia where resolution is presumably not limited by optical spread of the image. It is suggested that this contour interaction is related to the size of the receptive field (and hence to the resolving capacity) associated with the retinal region used to fixate the target.

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  1. W. Korte, Z. Psychol. 93, 17 (1923).
  2. R. H. Davage and F. C. Summer, J. Psychol. 30, 191 (1950).
  3. P. Müller, Ophthalmologica (Basel) 121, 143 (1951).
  4. H. Goldmann, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 148.
  5. A. Franceschetti, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 149.
  6. J. H. Prince, Am. J. Optom. and Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 581 (1957).
  7. E. Averbach and A. S. Coriell, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 309 (1961).
  8. Amblyopia (Greek, "blunt sight") is a loose term applied to cases of low visual acuity not explainable by obvious structural or optical abnormality. It is usually unilateral often being associated with a large difference in refractive error between the two eyes or with a deviation (heterotropia) of the amblyopic eye. Monocular fixation with an amblyopic eye is generally unsteady and often nonfoveal.
  9. An equation which permits calculation of visual efficiency (E) from the minimum angle of resolution (A) is log E=2.0777-0.0771A.
  10. There is no evidence that the basis of amblyopia is unsharp retinal imagery. A small artificial pupil does not improve the acuity of an amblyopic eye. Amblyopes are often quite insistent that imagery with the affected eye is not "blurred" in comparison with the normal eye. Placing an added lens of +0.25 or +0.50 D. before an amblyopic eye will usually evoke a response of "blur."
  11. F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102 (1958), No. 1, Pt. II
  12. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).
  13. T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 153, 583 (1960).
  14. D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 160, 106 (1962).
  15. M. C. Flom and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 260 (1961).
  16. J. Lorenz, Arch. Ges. Psychol. 24, 313 (1912).
  17. R. Pauli, Z. Biol. 81, 93 (1924).
  18. J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).
  19. K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).
  20. J. Stuart and H. M. Burian, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 471 (1962).

Averbach, E.

E. Averbach and A. S. Coriell, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 309 (1961).

Burian, H. M.

J. Stuart and H. M. Burian, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 471 (1962).

Coriell, A. S.

E. Averbach and A. S. Coriell, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 309 (1961).

Davage, R. H.

R. H. Davage and F. C. Summer, J. Psychol. 30, 191 (1950).

Flom, M. C.

M. C. Flom and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 260 (1961).

Franceschetti, A.

A. Franceschetti, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 149.

Gaarder, K.

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

Goldmann, H.

H. Goldmann, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 148.

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 160, 106 (1962).

Korte, W.

W. Korte, Z. Psychol. 93, 17 (1923).

Lorenz, J.

J. Lorenz, Arch. Ges. Psychol. 24, 313 (1912).

Müller, P.

P. Müller, Ophthalmologica (Basel) 121, 143 (1951).

Nachmias, J.

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).

Pauli, R.

R. Pauli, Z. Biol. 81, 93 (1924).

Prince, J. H.

J. H. Prince, Am. J. Optom. and Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 581 (1957).

Stuart, J.

J. Stuart and H. M. Burian, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 471 (1962).

Summer, F. C.

R. H. Davage and F. C. Summer, J. Psychol. 30, 191 (1950).

Weymouth, F. W.

F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102 (1958), No. 1, Pt. II

M. C. Flom and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 260 (1961).

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 160, 106 (1962).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 153, 583 (1960).

Other (20)

W. Korte, Z. Psychol. 93, 17 (1923).

R. H. Davage and F. C. Summer, J. Psychol. 30, 191 (1950).

P. Müller, Ophthalmologica (Basel) 121, 143 (1951).

H. Goldmann, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 148.

A. Franceschetti, discussion in Ref. 3, p. 149.

J. H. Prince, Am. J. Optom. and Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 34, 581 (1957).

E. Averbach and A. S. Coriell, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 309 (1961).

Amblyopia (Greek, "blunt sight") is a loose term applied to cases of low visual acuity not explainable by obvious structural or optical abnormality. It is usually unilateral often being associated with a large difference in refractive error between the two eyes or with a deviation (heterotropia) of the amblyopic eye. Monocular fixation with an amblyopic eye is generally unsteady and often nonfoveal.

An equation which permits calculation of visual efficiency (E) from the minimum angle of resolution (A) is log E=2.0777-0.0771A.

There is no evidence that the basis of amblyopia is unsharp retinal imagery. A small artificial pupil does not improve the acuity of an amblyopic eye. Amblyopes are often quite insistent that imagery with the affected eye is not "blurred" in comparison with the normal eye. Placing an added lens of +0.25 or +0.50 D. before an amblyopic eye will usually evoke a response of "blur."

F. W. Weymouth, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 46, 102 (1958), No. 1, Pt. II

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 154, 572 (1960).

T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 153, 583 (1960).

D. H. Hubel and T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. (London) 160, 106 (1962).

M. C. Flom and F. W. Weymouth, Arch. Ophthalmol. 66, 260 (1961).

J. Lorenz, Arch. Ges. Psychol. 24, 313 (1912).

R. Pauli, Z. Biol. 81, 93 (1924).

J. Nachmias, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 761 (1961).

K. Gaarder, Science 132, 471 (1960).

J. Stuart and H. M. Burian, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 471 (1962).

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