Abstract

Measurements have been made on the infrared and visible reflection properties of cirrus (ice) clouds formed at Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone Park. The optical data have been correlated with the meteorological parameters and the solar scattering angle. Intense specular reflections called “undersuns” were observed from fogs of hexagonal plate crystals.

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  1. V. J. Schaeffer, "Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar," Publication No. 1 of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).
  2. V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December 1962).
  3. The Boeing Company, "Infrared Reflection Measurements of Cirrus Clouds," Document D2-20981, ASTIA AD-282 742, 30 June 1962.
  4. D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, "The Project Skyfire Cloud- Seeding Generator," Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).
  5. V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).
  6. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, 9th Edition, 1957.
  7. R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).
  8. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).
  9. C. F. Squire, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).
  10. L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).
  11. D. Martz and H. Summcht, "Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky," Navord Report 3465, 31 March 1955.
  12. "NAMTC Participation in Infrared Measuring Program in Colorado Springs Area," Tech. kept. 111, Bureau of Aeronautics, 30 June 1958.
  13. E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.
  14. I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).
  15. D. R. Brown, "Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment," Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.
  16. Baird-Atomic, Inc., "Balloon-Borne Background Measurements—Final Report J. O. 5180," 7 February 1960. Classified.
  17. D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 584 (1960).
  18. W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, "Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V," Stanford Res. Inst. Project CU-473, Contract AF 19(122)–634, 28 March 1955.
  19. B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
  20. R. W. Fenn, "Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions," ASTIA AD-274 299, February 1962, see p. 46.
  21. R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

Abolins, A.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

Astheimer, R. W.

R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

Brown, D. R.

D. R. Brown, "Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment," Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.

Dirmhirn, I.

I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).

Eisner, I.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

Fenn, R. W.

R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

R. W. Fenn, "Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions," ASTIA AD-274 299, February 1962, see p. 46.

Fuquay, D. M.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, "The Project Skyfire Cloud- Seeding Generator," Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

John, G. St.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, "Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V," Stanford Res. Inst. Project CU-473, Contract AF 19(122)–634, 28 March 1955.

Kislovskii, L. D.

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).

Martz, D.

D. Martz and H. Summcht, "Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky," Navord Report 3465, 31 March 1955.

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).

Moore, C. B.

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).

Oetjen, R.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

Poppoff, I.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, "Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V," Stanford Res. Inst. Project CU-473, Contract AF 19(122)–634, 28 March 1955.

Schaeffer, V. J.

V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).

V. J. Schaeffer, "Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar," Publication No. 1 of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).

V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December 1962).

Spencer, D. E.

D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 584 (1960).

Squire, C. F.

C. F. Squire, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).

Summcht, H.

D. Martz and H. Summcht, "Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky," Navord Report 3465, 31 March 1955.

Thuman, W. C.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, "Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V," Stanford Res. Inst. Project CU-473, Contract AF 19(122)–634, 28 March 1955.

Vonnegut, B.

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).

Wells, J. J.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, "The Project Skyfire Cloud- Seeding Generator," Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

Wormser, E.

R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).

Young, J.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

Other (21)

V. J. Schaeffer, "Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar," Publication No. 1 of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).

V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December 1962).

The Boeing Company, "Infrared Reflection Measurements of Cirrus Clouds," Document D2-20981, ASTIA AD-282 742, 30 June 1962.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, "The Project Skyfire Cloud- Seeding Generator," Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, 9th Edition, 1957.

R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).

C. F. Squire, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).

D. Martz and H. Summcht, "Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky," Navord Report 3465, 31 March 1955.

"NAMTC Participation in Infrared Measuring Program in Colorado Springs Area," Tech. kept. 111, Bureau of Aeronautics, 30 June 1958.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, 'Infrared Techniques and Measurements," Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)–3312, Final Rept., October 1957, p. 70.

I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).

D. R. Brown, "Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment," Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.

Baird-Atomic, Inc., "Balloon-Borne Background Measurements—Final Report J. O. 5180," 7 February 1960. Classified.

D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 584 (1960).

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, "Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V," Stanford Res. Inst. Project CU-473, Contract AF 19(122)–634, 28 March 1955.

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).

R. W. Fenn, "Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions," ASTIA AD-274 299, February 1962, see p. 46.

R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

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