Abstract

Measurements have been made on the infrared and visible reflection properties of cirrus (ice) clouds formed at Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone Park. The optical data have been correlated with the meteorological parameters and the solar scattering angle. Intense specular reflections called “undersuns” were observed from fogs of hexagonal plate crystals.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. J. Schaeffer, “Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar,” of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).
  2. V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December1962).
    [Crossref]
  3. The Boeing Company, “Infrared Reflection Measurements of Cirrus Clouds,” , 30June1962.
  4. D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, “The Project Skyfire Cloud-Seeding Generator,” Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).
  5. V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).
    [Crossref]
  6. Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, 9th Edition, 1957.
  7. R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).
  9. C. F. Squire, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 782 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).
  11. D. Martz and H. Summcht, “Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky,” , 31March1955.
  12. “NAMTC Participation in Infrared Measuring Program in Colorado Springs Area,” , Bureau of Aeronautics, 30June1958.
  13. E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.
  14. I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).
  15. D. R. Brown, “Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment,” Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.
  16. Baird-Atomic, Inc., “Balloon-Borne Background Measurements—,” 7February1960. Classified.
  17. D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 584 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, “Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V,” , Contract AF 19(122)-634, 28March1955.
  19. B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. W. Fenn, “Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions,” , February1962, see p. 46.
  21. R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

1962 (1)

V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December1962).
[Crossref]

1960 (2)

D. E. Spencer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 584 (1960).
[Crossref]

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
[Crossref]

1959 (2)

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).

R. W. Astheimer and E. Wormser, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 179 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).

1952 (1)

1946 (1)

V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).
[Crossref]

Abolins, A.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

Astheimer, R. W.

Bell, E. E.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

Brown, D. R.

D. R. Brown, “Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment,” Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.

Dirmhirn, I.

I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).

Eisner, I.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

Fenn, R. W.

R. W. Fenn, “Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions,” , February1962, see p. 46.

R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

Fuquay, D. M.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, “The Project Skyfire Cloud-Seeding Generator,” Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

Kislovskii, L. D.

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).

Martz, D.

D. Martz and H. Summcht, “Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky,” , 31March1955.

Minnaert, M.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).

Moore, C. B.

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
[Crossref]

Oetjen, R.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

Poppoff, I.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, “Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V,” , Contract AF 19(122)-634, 28March1955.

Schaeffer, V. J.

V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December1962).
[Crossref]

V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).
[Crossref]

V. J. Schaeffer, “Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar,” of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).

Spencer, D. E.

Squire, C. F.

St. John, G.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, “Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V,” , Contract AF 19(122)-634, 28March1955.

Summcht, H.

D. Martz and H. Summcht, “Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky,” , 31March1955.

Thuman, W. C.

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, “Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V,” , Contract AF 19(122)-634, 28March1955.

Vonnegut, B.

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
[Crossref]

Wells, J. J.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, “The Project Skyfire Cloud-Seeding Generator,” Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

Wormser, E.

Young, J.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

J. Appl. Meteor. (1)

V. J. Schaeffer, J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 481 (December1962).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. (1)

L. D. Kislovskii, Opt. Spectry. U.S.S.R. 7, 201 (1959).

Science (1)

V. J. Schaeffer, Science 104, 457 (1946).
[Crossref]

Weather (1)

B. Vonnegut and C. B. Moore, Weather 15, 277 (1960).
[Crossref]

Wetter und Leben (1)

I. Dirmhirn, Wetter und Leben 9, 41 (1957).

Other (13)

D. R. Brown, “Airborne Infrared Radiometry at the Royal Aircraft Establishment,” Classified Paper at Eighth National IRIS Meeting, 31 October 1962.

Baird-Atomic, Inc., “Balloon-Borne Background Measurements—,” 7February1960. Classified.

M. Minnaert, The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1954).

R. W. Fenn, “Light Scattering Measurements and the Analysis of Natural Aerosol Distributions,” , February1962, see p. 46.

R. W. Fenn, U. S. Army Electronics Research and Development Lab., Fort Monmouth, N. J. (private communication).

W. C. Thuman, G. St. John, and I. Poppoff, “Studies of the Intensity of Light Scattered by Water Fogs and Ice Aerosols—Scientific Report No. V,” , Contract AF 19(122)-634, 28March1955.

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, 9th Edition, 1957.

The Boeing Company, “Infrared Reflection Measurements of Cirrus Clouds,” , 30June1962.

D. M. Fuquay and J. J. Wells, “The Project Skyfire Cloud-Seeding Generator,” Res. Paper 48, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1957).

D. Martz and H. Summcht, “Quantitative Spectral Measurements of Radiation in the 0.55–3.0 Micron Region from Clouds, Horizons and Blue Sky,” , 31March1955.

“NAMTC Participation in Infrared Measuring Program in Colorado Springs Area,” , Bureau of Aeronautics, 30June1958.

E. E. Bell, I. Eisner, J. Young, A. Abolins, and R. Oetjen, “Infrared Techniques and Measurements,” Ohio State University, Contract AF 33(616)-3312, , October1957, p. 70.

V. J. Schaeffer, “Final Report—1961 Yellowstone Field Research Seminar,” of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York (1961).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The undersun appeared whenever hexagonal plate ice crystals were present. Underexposure of the film makes the air appear far more hazy than evident at that time from the roof of Old Faithful Inn. Slant of steam cloud in background indicates a 3-mph air flow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral radiances of ice cloud. Radiances at the location of the bright sun dog were comparable to other points without a sun dog at the same scattering angle. The explanation for the 2.9-μ dip is not known.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering angle effects on cloud radiances. Filter 3 is germanium and Filter 5 is a 2.6-μ long-pass Ektron. No dependance with ambient temperature was noted for the open position.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering angle effects on cloud radiances. Curve A is for a 0.05-μ band pass, data taken on the morning of 27 February. Curve B is the data from the 8-in. radiometer on 27 February. Intermittent peaks at 140° were caused by fresh geyser eruptions maintaining water clouds at that position, Curve C is the average for the 4-in. radiometer, all days. Vertical bars show range of values: no 140° peak observed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cloud radiances in the 2.8- to 3.6-μ region. Values for Filter 6 appear high. Within the data spread, no brightness differences could be distinguished for water drop or ice fog clouds. For comparison two sets of airborne measurements near 2.5 μ over cirrus clouds are shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A “best-estimate” scattering curve for infrared cloud radiances has been compiled from all known data for engineering purposes. Single scattering functions measured with a nephelometer for visible light and ice fogs have a similiar shape.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Filter characteristics.

Tables Icon

Table II Cloud crystal summary.

Tables Icon

Table III Undersun spectral-energy distribution.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

cos θ = cos a 1 cos a 2 cos | α 1 α 2 | + sin α 1 sin α 2 ,
h = ( local time 12 : 36 ) 15 ° , sin a 1 = sin ϕ sin δ + cos ϕ cos δ cos h , sin α 1 = cos δ sin h / cos a 1 .
P t = V s R + N b b A ω ,