Abstract

As part of a program of work on low-frequency oscillations and fluctuations in mercury-vapor discharges at a pressure of about 1 µ Hg, observations have been made of the light output from a number of discharge tubes. Qualitative considerations suggested that the fixed or moving striations commonly encountered at rather higher pressures should not be present in our range of discharge parameters. Some independent experimental evidence, however, had indicated the presence of a series of moving striations. Under similar conditions we have been unable to observe this phenomenon which we ascribe to the unsuspected presence of impurities. These are known to have a profound influence on the production of striations. Some strong low-frequency fluctuation components were found to be excited, but these can be explained as electrostatic sound-wave modes. Further evidence on the unlikelihood of striations being present is adduced by observations of the decay of non-Maxwellian electron velocity groups generated at points in the discharge.

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  1. F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June 1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).
  2. F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
  3. J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.
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  16. M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).
  17. B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).
  18. J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
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  21. F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).

von Gierke, G.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Armstrong, E. B.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Boyd, R. L. F.

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).

Cobine, J. D.

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin Inst. 243, 41 (1947).

Crawford, F. W.

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September 1962).

F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June 1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).

F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).

Cullen, A. L.

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).

Druyvesteyn, M. J.

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).

Emeleus, K. G.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Foulds, K. W. H.

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).

Francis, G.

G. Francis, Handbuch der Pysik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1956), Vol. XXII, pp. 137–145.

Gallagher, C. J.

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin Inst. 243, 41 (1947).

Gordon, E. I.

E. I. Gordon, Ph.D. thesis, Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (January 1957).

Howe, R. M.

R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).

Kino, G. S.

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September 1962).

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).

Klarfeld, B.

B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).

Lawson, J. D.

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

Little, P. F.

P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).

Mott-Smith, H.

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).

Neill, T. R.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Ott, W.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Pupp, W.

W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); 35, 705 (1934); 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid. 37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).

Schwirzke, F.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Self, S. A.

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September 1962).

Spalter, J.

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September 1962).

Thomson, G. P.

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

Thomson, J. J.

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

Tonks, L.

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).

Twiddy, N. D.

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).

Other (21)

F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June 1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

G. Francis, Handbuch der Pysik (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1956), Vol. XXII, pp. 137–145.

W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); 35, 705 (1934); 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid. 37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).

R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).

I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).

E. I. Gordon, Ph.D. thesis, Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (January 1957).

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).

B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin Inst. 243, 41 (1947).

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September 1962).

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).

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