Abstract

As part of a program of work on low-frequency oscillations and fluctuations in mercury-vapor discharges at a pressure of about 1 μ Hg, observations have been made of the light output from a number of discharge tubes. Qualitative considerations suggested that the fixed or moving striations commonly encountered at rather higher pressures should not be present in our range of discharge parameters. Some independent experimental evidence, however, had indicated the presence of a series of moving striations. Under similar conditions we have been unable to observe this phenomenon which we ascribe to the unsuspected presence of impurities. These are known to have a profound influence on the production of striations. Some strong low-frequency fluctuation components were found to be excited, but these can be explained as electrostatic sound-wave modes. Further evidence on the unlikelihood of striations being present is adduced by observations of the decay of non-Maxwellian electron velocity groups generated at points in the discharge.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).
  2. F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.
  4. G. Francis, Handbuch der Physik (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1956), Vol. XXII, pp. 137–145.
  5. W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); Phys. Z. 35, 705 (1934); Phys. Z. 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid.  37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).
  9. P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).
  10. L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  13. I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. I. Gordon, Ph.D. thesis, Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (January1957).
  15. G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).
  16. M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).
    [Crossref]
  17. B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).
  18. J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin. Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).
  20. F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).
  21. F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).
    [Crossref]

1962 (2)

P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

1961 (3)

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

1947 (1)

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin. Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
[Crossref]

1938 (1)

B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).

1932 (1)

W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); Phys. Z. 35, 705 (1934); Phys. Z. 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid.  37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1930 (1)

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).
[Crossref]

1929 (1)

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).
[Crossref]

1928 (1)

I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, E. B.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Boyd, R. L. F.

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Cobine, J. D.

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin. Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
[Crossref]

Crawford, F. W.

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).

Cullen, A. L.

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).
[Crossref]

Druyvesteyn, M. J.

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).
[Crossref]

Emeleus, K. G.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Foulds, K. W. H.

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).
[Crossref]

Francis, G.

G. Francis, Handbuch der Physik (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1956), Vol. XXII, pp. 137–145.

Gallagher, C. J.

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin. Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
[Crossref]

Gordon, E. I.

E. I. Gordon, Ph.D. thesis, Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (January1957).

Howe, R. M.

R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
[Crossref]

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).

Klarfeld, B.

B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).

Langmuir, I.

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).
[Crossref]

I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).
[Crossref]

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).
[Crossref]

Lawson, J. D.

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

Little, P. F.

P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).

Mott-Smith, H.

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).
[Crossref]

Neill, T. R.

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Ott, W.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Pupp, W.

W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); Phys. Z. 35, 705 (1934); Phys. Z. 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid.  37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwirzke, F.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Self, S. A.

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).

Spalter, J.

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).

Thomson, G. P.

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

Thomson, J. J.

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

Tonks, L.

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).
[Crossref]

Twiddy, N. D.

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).
[Crossref]

von Gierke, G.

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Gen. Elec. Rev. (1)

I. Langmuir and H. Mott-Smith, Gen. Elec. Rev. 27, 449, 538, 616, 762, 810 (1924). H. Mott-Smith and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 28, 727 (1926).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 881 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Franklin. Inst. (1)

J. D. Cobine and C. J. Gallagher, J. Franklin. Inst. 243, 41 (1947).
[Crossref]

J. Nucl. Energy (2)

P. F. Little, J. Nucl. Energy C4, 15 (1962).

F. W. Crawford and J. D. Lawson, J. Nucl. Energy C3, 179 (1961).

J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. (1)

B. Klarfeld, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R. 5, 924 (1938).

Nature (2)

R. L. F. Boyd and N. D. Twiddy, Nature 173, 633 (1954); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A250, 53 (1959); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 145 (1960); N. D. Twiddy, ibid. A262, 379 (1961); J. B. Thompson, ibid. A262, 503, 519 (1961).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cullen and K. W. H. Foulds, Nature 169, 236 (1952). K. W. H. Foulds, Proc. IEE 102, Part C, 203 (1955); J. Electron Control 2, 270 (1956).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

L. Tonks and I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. 33, 195 (1929).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Letters (1)

F. W. Crawford, Phys. Rev. Letters 6, 663 (1961); I. Alexeff and R. V. Neidigh, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1523 (1962); Phys. Rev. Letters 7, 223 (1961); R. Geller, Compt. Rend. 253, 1542 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Z. (1)

W. Pupp, Phys. Z. 33, 844 (1932); Phys. Z. 35, 705 (1934); Phys. Z. 36, 61 (1935); Z. Tech. Phys. 15, 257 (1934); G. H. Dieke, H. Y. Loh, and H. M. Crosswhite, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 185 (1946); H. Y. Loh and G. H. Dieke, ibid.  37, 837 (1947); T. Donahue and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. 81, 248 (1951).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 (1)

G. von Gierke, W. Ott, and F. Schwirzke, Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich 1961 II, 1412 (1962).

Proc. IRE (1)

F. W. Crawford and G. S. Kino, Proc. IRE 49, 1767 (1961).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. (1)

I. Langmuir, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. 14, 627 (1928); J. H. Cahn, Phys. Rev. 75, 293 (1949); D. Gabor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A213, 73 (1952); E. A. Ash and D. Gabor, ibid. A228, 477 (1955); D. Gabor, E. A. Ash, and D. Dracott, Nature 176, 916 (1955).
[Crossref]

Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. (1)

E. B. Armstrong, K. G. Emeleus, and T. R. Neill, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. A54, 291 (1951).

Z. Physik (1)

M. J. Druyvesteyn, Z. Physik 64, 790 (1930).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

F. W. Crawford, G. S. Kino, S. A. Self, and J. Spalter, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 961, Stanford University (September1962).

E. I. Gordon, Ph.D. thesis, Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (January1957).

J. J. Thomson and G. P. Thomson, Conduction of Electricity through Gases (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1935), 3rd edition, Vol. II, pp. 380–417.

G. Francis, Handbuch der Physik (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, 1956), Vol. XXII, pp. 137–145.

F. W. Crawford, Microwave Laboratory Rept. No. 813, Stanford University (June1961); Proc. Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena Gases, 5th Munich, 1961 I, 593 (1962).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental discharge tubes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quantities associated with a striation (after Boyd and Twiddy6).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron energy distributions in a striation (after Boyd and Twiddy6).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Idealized striation characteristics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak frequencies and typical anode voltage fluctuation spectra.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Constricted discharge tubes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electron energy distributions with varying probe-cathode spacing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electron density and temperature variations with probe-cathode spacing.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variations of discharge parameters with position.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f r = ( α n r / π d ) ( γ k T e / m i ) 1 2 ,
f 1 100 / d kc / sec ,
f / f = α / α .