Abstract

The color of daylight from a near-north sky at Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, was measured visually on a six-primary Donaldson colorimeter during most of March 1962. The results are given graphically in terms of the CIE standard observer and coordinate system and are compared with relevant data reported by other authors. The agreement between colors of natural daylight with those of artificial daylight is also discussed.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).
  2. H. Reiner, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).
  3. P. Hess, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 204 (1939).
  4. P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).
  6. A. H. Taylor and G. P. Kerr, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 3 (1941).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).
  8. J. N. Hull, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 19, 21 (1954).
  9. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 832 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. Dunkelman and R. Scolnik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 356 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).
  12. R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 1068 (1938); Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).
    [Crossref]
  13. W. S. Stiles and G. Wyszecki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 58 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Masaki, Sci. Light (Tokyo) 8, 67 (1959).
  15. D. Nickerson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 57 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  17. Colorimetry, Committee, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (The Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1953).
  18. H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).
  19. K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
    [Crossref]

1962 (1)

1961 (1)

D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

1960 (1)

1959 (2)

1958 (1)

1956 (1)

H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).

1954 (2)

W. E. K. Middleton, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 793 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. N. Hull, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 19, 21 (1954).

1953 (1)

K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

1941 (1)

1940 (2)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[Crossref]

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

1939 (2)

H. Reiner, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).

P. Hess, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 204 (1939).

1938 (1)

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 1068 (1938); Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).
[Crossref]

1923 (1)

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Abbot, C. G.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Aldrich, L. B.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Donaldson, R.

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 1068 (1938); Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).
[Crossref]

Dunkelman, L.

Fowle, F. E.

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Frühling, H. G.

H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).

Gibson, K. S.

K. S. Gibson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 30, 88 (1940).

Götz, F. W. P.

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

Hess, P.

P. Hess, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 204 (1939).

Hirai, B.

K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
[Crossref]

Hull, J. N.

J. N. Hull, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 19, 21 (1954).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

Kerr, G. P.

MacAdam, D. L.

Masaki, H.

H. Masaki, Sci. Light (Tokyo) 8, 67 (1959).

Middleton, W. E. K.

Moon, P.

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[Crossref]

Münch, W.

H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).

Nayatani, Y.

K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
[Crossref]

Nickerson, D.

Okada, K.

K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
[Crossref]

Reiner, H.

H. Reiner, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).

Richter, M.

H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).

Schönmann, E.

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

Scolnik, R.

Stiles, W. S.

Taylor, A. H.

Wyszecki, G.

Farbe (2)

D. B. Judd, Farbe 10, 31 (1961).

H. G. Frühling, W. Münch, and M. Richter, Farbe 5, 41 (1956).

Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. (2)

H. Reiner, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 2, 234 (1939).

P. Hess, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 55, 204 (1939).

Helv. Phys. Acta (1)

F. W. P. Götz and E. Schönmann, Helv. Phys. Acta 21, 151 (1948).

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[Crossref]

J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) (1)

K. Okada, B. Hirai, and Y. Nayatani, J. Ill. Eng. Inst. (Japan) 37, 308 (1953) (in Japanese).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (7)

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) (1)

R. Donaldson, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 47, 1068 (1938); Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 59, 554 (1947).
[Crossref]

Sci. Light (Tokyo) (1)

H. Masaki, Sci. Light (Tokyo) 8, 67 (1959).

Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections (1)

C. G. Abbot, F. E. Fowle, and L. B. Aldrich, Smithsonian Inst. Misc. Collections 74, No. 7, Publ. No. 2714 (1923).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) (1)

J. N. Hull, Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (London) 19, 21 (1954).

Other (1)

Colorimetry, Committee, Optical Society of America, The Science of Color (The Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1953).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromaticity gamut of daylight from north sky.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromaticity points of natural and artificial sources. Hatched area: north sky as reported in this paper; solid dots: different phases of sunlight and skylight, after Taylor and Kerr6; open circles: direct sunlight at sea level for air masses m = 0, 1, 2, and 3, after Moon4; open circles with cross insert: clear and overcast sky, after Masaki14: open triangles: Abbot–Gibson daylight, after Nickerson15; solid triangles: overcast sky, after Middleton16; solid squares: CIE standard sources, B, C; open squares: Macbeth daylight (6800°K and 7500°K)17; cross: high pressure xenon arc, after Frühlung et al.18; double cross: carbon arc17; solid line: Planckian locus.17

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of correlated color temperature of three phases of daylight from a north sky as a function of time of day. Solid dots: clear sky (1 March 1962): open circles: overcast sky (5 March 1962); partly open circles: cloudy sky in the morning, clear sky in the afternoon (6 March 1962).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of illuminance on barium sulfate surface measured at three different phases of daylight from a north sky as a function of time of day. Solid dots: clear sky (1 March 1962): open circles: overcast sky (5 March 1962); partly open circles: cloudy sky in the morning, clear sky in the afternoon (6 March 1962).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between correlated color temperature and relative illuminance measured on horizontal barium sulfate surface irradiated by north sky under approximately 45°.