See E. F. DuPré and L. H. Dawson, "Transmission of Light in Water: An Annotated Bibliography," U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Bibliography No. 20, April, 1961 for abstracts of 650 publications by over 400 authors in more than 150 Swiss, German, French, Italian, English, and U. S. journals and other sources from 1818 to 1959.
S. Q. Duntley, Visibility Studies and Some Applications in the Field of Camouflage, Summary Tech. Rept. of Division 16, NDRC (Columbia University Press, 1946), Vol. II, Chap. 5, p. 212.
See J. G. Moore, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) A240, 163 (1946–48) for a method of using such data to determine depth and attenuation coefficients of shallow water.
See G. A. Stamm and R. A. Hengel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1090 (1961) for data on the spectral irradiance incident on the underside of an aircraft flying above the ocean.
J. E. Tyler, Limnology and Oceanography 4, 102 (1959).
S. Q. Duntley, Natl. Acad. Sci.—Natl. Research Council Publ. 473, 79 (1956).
L. F. Drummeter and G. L. Knestrick, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Rept. No. 5642 (1961).
N. G. Jerlov, Kgl. Vetenskap. Vitterh. Handl. F.6, Ser. B, BD8. N:o 11 (1961).
N. G. Jerlov, Reports of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition of 1947–48 (1951), Vol. III, p. 49, Table 27.
Multiple thermoclines often form in the upper portion of the sea; the maximum optical attenuation is associated with the maximum vertical temperature gradient and frequently falls on a secondary thermocline. Internal waves shift the scattering layer vertically. See E. C. La Fond, E. G. Barnham, and W. H. Armstrong, U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory Rept. 1052 (July 1961), p. 15. Also see J. Joseph, Deut. Hydrograph. Z., Nr. 5 (1961).
Scattering is also contributed by fine particles, by molecules of water, and by various solutes, but these contributions are usually quite minor and often difficult to detect. Even in very clear, blue ocean water scattering by water molecules produces only 7% of the total scattering coefficient and is dominant only at scattering angles near 90°, where it provides more than 2/3 of the scattered intensity (see reference 8); although the magnitude of this small component of scattering varies inversely as the fourth power of wavelength (λ−4), it is so heavily masked by nonselective scattering due to large particles that total scattering in the sea is virtually independent of wavelength. The prominent blue color of clear ocean water, apart from sky reflection, is due almost entirely to selective absorption by water molecules.
L. H. Dawson and E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 554 (1941).
J. E. Tyler, Limnology and Oceanography 6, 451 (1961).
H. F. Aughey and F. J. Baum, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 833 (1954).
M. V. Koslyaninov, Trudy Inst. Okeanol. Acad. S.S.S.R. 25, 134 (1957).
W. H. Richardson and R. W. Preisendorfer, Scripps Inst. Oceanog., Ref. 60–43 (1960).
S. Glasstone and M. C. Edlund, Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory (D. Van Nostrand and Company, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1952), p. 107.
R. W. Preisendorfer (private communication).
S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Culver, F. Richey, and R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 877(A) (1952).
S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Culver, F. Richey, and R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. (to be published).
L. V. Whitney, J. Marine Research 4, 122 (1941). 22L. V. Whitney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 714 (1941).
J. E. Tyler, Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanog. 7, 363 (1960).
R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Marine Research 18, 1 (1959).
N. G. Jerlov and M. Fukuda, Tellus 12, 348 (1960).
T. Sasaki, Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fisheries 28, 489 (1962).
R. W. Preisendorfer, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 58–59, (1958).
R. W. Preisendorfer, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 58–60, (1958).
R. W. Austin, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 59–9, (1959).
Along any underwater path of sight a remarkable proportion of the objects ordinarily encountered can be seen at limiting ranges between 4 and 5 times the distance 1/[α(z)−K(z,θ,ø cosθ] regardless of their size or the background against which they appear, provided ample daylight prevails [see Eqs. (14) and (15)].
S. Q. Duntley, A. R. Boileau, and R. W. Preisendorfer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 499 (1957).
S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 994(A) (1947) and U. S. Patent No. 2,661,650.
S. Q. Duntley, Proc. Armed Forces-Natl. Research Council Vision Committee 23, 123 (1949); 27, 57 (1950); 28, 60 (1951).
S. Q. Duntley and R. W. Preisendorfer, MIT Rept. N5ori 07864 (1952).
R. W. Preisendorfer, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 58–42 (1957).
R. W. Preisendorfer, Scripps Inst. Oceanog. Ref. 58–41, (1957).
S. Q. Duntley, Natl. Acad. Sci./Natl. Research Council Publ. 473, 85 (1956).